Fury vs Schwarz Live Stream UK time and how to watch the

first_img This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Show More Unlike other sites, we thoroughly review everything we recommend, using industry standard tests to evaluate products. We’ll always tell you what we find. We may get a commission if you buy via our price links.Tell us what you think – email the Editor Sign up for the Mobile NewsletterSign Up Please keep me up to date with special offers and news from Goodtoknow and other brands operated by TI Media Limited via email. You can unsubscribe at any time. That said, Schwarz has admitted that he must knock Fury out to have any chance of beating the lineal heavyweight champion, so it should be an entertaining watch either way.Here are all the details you need to watch Fury vs Schwarz tonight.Fury vs Schwarz Live Stream: When is the fight?The fight will take place in the early hours of Sunday, June 16 in the UK, with the ringwalk expected to take place at around 4am.As always, though, the schedule may be subject to change, depending on how long the undercard fights go on for.TV coverage in the UK will start at midnight on Sunday, June 16 and there’s plenty of action to look forward to ahead of the main event. The undercard includes:Tyson Fury v Tom Schwarz (Heavyweight)Sullivan Berrera v Jesse Hart (Light Heavyweight)Mikaela Mayer v Lizbeth Crespo (Lightweight)Albert Bell v Andy Vences (Featherweight)Isaac Lowe v Duarn Vue (Featherweight)Martinez McGregor v Cem Kilic (Super-Middleweight)Daniel Infante v Sonny Conto (Heavyweight)Guido Vianello v Keenan Hickman (Heavyweight)Juan Torres v Peter Kadiru (Heavyweight)Fury vs Schwarz Channel: Which UK TV channel is showing Fury vs Schwarz?BT Sport Box Office (channel 494) has the TV rights to Fury vs Schwarz in the UK. If you’re a subscriber, you can buy the fight for the princely sum of £19.95 for the entire night’s action.To order Fury vs Schwarz, just follow this link.You can also order the fight on your Sky box – just go to Sky Box Office or the TV Guide at channel 490 – or on Virgin TV by going to the On Demand section, then choosing it in Live Events.Fury vs Schwarz Live Stream: How to watch Fury vs Schwarz onlineOnce you’ve registered and paid up to watch the fight, you’ll be able to choose whether to watch on Mac or PC, or on mobile devices with the BT Sport Box Office app for iOS and Android. You can also Chromecast or AirPlay it from there to your TV.That’s all there is to it. Make sure your web-connected kettle is ready to start brewing at 4am, and pray your commitment is rewarded by a fight that’s as entertaining as Joshua vs Ruiz.center_img We’d also like to send you special offers and news just by email from other carefully selected companies we think you might like. Your personal details will not be shared with those companies – we send the emails and you can unsubscribe at any time. Please tick here if you are happy to receive these messages.By submitting your information, you agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy & Cookies Policy. Fury vs Schwarz Live Stream: How to watch Fury vs Schwarz onlineAfter Anthony Joshua’s dramatic fall from grace at the hands of Andy Ruiz Jr, is there another heavyweight shock on the cards tonight? Tyson Fury is taking on undefeated German Tom Schwarz in Las Vegas – here’s how to live stream Fury vs Schwarz online, plus all the key details like the Fury vs Schwarz UK time and undercard.Very little is known about the 25-year-old Schwarz, which could make him a dangerous opponent for Fury, arguably boxing’s biggest draw after his incredible comeback from years outside the sport fighting personal demons.Fury remains undefeated, though, and is a big favourite to see off his six-foot-six tall German challenger at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas. His unusually fast hands and head movement, combined with his impressive boxing intelligence, make him a tricky opponent for anyone, including ‘The Bronze Bomber’ Deontay Wilder, who he recently drew against. BT Sport DealBT Sport from just £10/monthWith this great collection of BT Sport deals, you can be watching the Fury vs Schwarz fight for as little as £10 – talk about a bargain.BT Sport|From £10/monthView DealFrom £10/month|BT Sportlast_img read more

Mozilla is on the path to adfree internet that works for all

first_img We’d also like to send you special offers and news just by email from other carefully selected companies we think you might like. Your personal details will not be shared with those companies – we send the emails and you can unsubscribe at any time. Please tick here if you are happy to receive these messages.By submitting your information, you agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy & Cookies Policy. Sign up for the Mobile NewsletterSign Up Please keep me up to date with special offers and news from Goodtoknow and other brands operated by TI Media Limited via email. You can unsubscribe at any time. With services like Spotify and the US streaming service Hulu, we’ve become accustomed to coughing up a few bucks if we want to avoid advertisements. If you’re online though, we tend just to use freely available ad blockers, meaning the content creators earn nothing from our patronage.However, Mozilla, the maker of the Firefox web browser, believes the Spotify model can be brought to the internet, ensuring publishers are compensated and boosting the privacy of web users by keeping the dreaded ad-trackers away.It is testing a new $4.99-a-month subscription service (first spotted on Reddit via Liliputing) that’ll get rid of advertisements, while still paying organisations for their journalism. As well as the absence of ads, the service will provide audio versions of angles and synced bookmarks across devices.Related: Best VPN“Support the sites you love, avoid the ads you hate,” the First Look page reads. “We’ve partnered with some of the world’s greatest publishers to bring you a better journalism experience. We share your payment directly with the sites you read. They make more money which means they can bring you great content without needing to distract you with ads just to keep the lights on.”The company isn’t allowing users to sign up yet, but visitors can fill in a survey to express their interest in the product. The page doesn’t yet list the publishers Mozilla is working with either.This isn’t the first time we’ve heard of Mozilla’s plans to find new ways to fund online content. The firm says the online advertising model is broken, with users suffering from terrible experiences and pervasive tracking practices.Mozilla said it has turned its “attention toward finding a more sustainable ecosystem balance for publishers and users alike.”In a blog post in February, the foundation added: “In 2019, we will continue to explore new product features and offerings, including our ongoing focus on identifying a more sustainable ecosystem balance for both publishers and users.” This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Show More Unlike other sites, we thoroughly review everything we recommend, using industry standard tests to evaluate products. We’ll always tell you what we find. We may get a commission if you buy via our price links.Tell us what you think – email the Editorlast_img read more

WatchThe new NAFTA deal is in trouble amid looming elections fights over

first_imgThe new NAFTA deal is ‘in trouble’ amid looming elections, fights over tariffs The chances of the countries ratifying the pact this year are receding Dave Graham and David Ljunggren 8 Comments April 8, 201910:23 AM EDT Filed under News Economy Reuters Comment Twitter Andrew Caballero-Reynolds/AFP/Getty Images ‘Bad policy’: U.S. aluminum bosses slam tariffs, say quotas are risky Facebook In Ottawa, Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland said this week her government was “constantly” looking at its own retaliation list, noting that Trump’s tariffs left the country over $16 billion worth of space to strike back.Freeland did not say when that list could change, and a government source, speaking on condition of anonymity, said it might not be necessary. Still, Freeland said Canada was coordinating with Mexico about its options.Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who faces a tough re-election battle, on Thursday rejected accepting quotas on Canadian steel and aluminum in exchange for U.S. tariffs being dropped.Trudeau was criticized during the USMCA negotiations for giving ground to Trump on access to Canada’s dairy sector.WORKERSU.S. Democrats have threatened to block the USMCA unless Mexico passes legislation to improve workers’ rights, a demand shared by the Canadian government.A bill already in Mexico’s Congress to strengthen trade unions should be approved this month, the government says.Trump blamed NAFTA for millions of job losses in the United States as companies moved south to employ cheaper Mexican labour. Trump is running for re-election in 2020, and his ‘America First’ policy will likely feature prominently in the campaign.Forcing Mexico and Canada to rework NAFTA was one of Trump’s signature pledges during his shock win in 2016, and Democrats are pulling out the stops to avoid losing again.“The closer the election gets, the harder it will be for Democrats to grant Trump a victory” by ratifying the USMCA, said Sergio Alcocer, a former deputy Mexican foreign minister.Some Democrats are pushing to change the deal — an idea that both Canadian and Mexican officials resist.“People need to be very careful around opening up what could really be a Pandora’s box,” Freeland said on Thursday.Canadian officials say they fear that if one part of the treaty were reopened, it could spark clamour for other sections to be renegotiated as well.© Thomson Reuters 2019 center_img Share this storyThe new NAFTA deal is ‘in trouble’ amid looming elections, fights over tariffs Tumblr Pinterest Google+ LinkedIn Email MEXICO CITY/OTTAWA — More than six months after the United States, Mexico and Canada agreed a new deal to govern more than US$1 trillion in regional trade, the chances of the countries ratifying the pact this year are receding.The three countries struck the United States-Mexico-Canada agreement (USMCA) on Sept. 30, ending a year of difficult negotiations after U.S. President Donald Trump demanded the preceding trade pact be renegotiated or scrapped.But the deal has not ended trade tensions in North America. If ratification is delayed much longer, it could become hostage to electoral politics.The United States has its next presidential contest in 2020, and Canada holds a federal election in October. ‘I’m not optimistic’: Political will for passage of new NAFTA rapidly evaporating in America Mexico won’t ratify new NAFTA if U.S. keeps tariffs on steel and aluminum Not ratifying NAFTA will be a ‘catastrophe,’ U.S. trade czar says, as U.S. works to lift metals tariffs The delay means businesses are still uncertain about the framework that will govern future investments in the region.“The USMCA is in trouble,” said Andres Rozental, a former Mexican deputy foreign minister for North America.Though he believed the deal would ultimately be approved, Rozental said opposition from U.S. Democrats and unions to labour provisions in the deal, as well as bickering over tariffs, made its passage in the next few months highly unlikely.Canada’s Parliament must also ratify the treaty and officials say the timetable is very tight. Current legislators only have a few weeks work left before the start of the summer recess in June, and members of the new Parliament would have little chance to address ratification until 2020.Trump, a Republican, has shown frustration with the Democratic-led U.S. House of Representatives for failing to sign off on the USMCA. He has threatened to pull out of the old pact, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), if Congress does not hurry up.If Trump did dump NAFTA, the three nations would revert to trade rules in place before it came into effect in 1994.TARIFFSCanada and Mexico are seeking exemption from U.S. tariffs on global metal imports imposed last year.The metals tariffs were not included in the USMCA and Mexico and Canada are impatient to resolve the issue. Mexico has repeatedly threatened to target new U.S. products by the end of April in retribution if tariffs are imposed.Meanwhile, Trump on Thursday threatened to slap tariffs on Mexican auto exports unless Mexico does more to stop drug traffickers and illegal immigration.Mexico’s government is in the final stages of completing a new list of potential U.S. imports to be targeted, said Luz Maria de la Mora, a Mexican deputy economy minister.“There’s going to be a bit of everything,” she told Reuters, declining to give details of how the list — originally encompassing products such as bourbon, cheese, motor boats, pork legs, steel and apples — could be modified.De la Mora would not be drawn on whether Mexico could refuse to ratify USMCA if steel tariffs are not withdrawn, saying only: “All options are on the table.”U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meets with Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. on April 3, 2019. Join the conversation → Mexico threw Canada ‘under the bus’ with bilateral trade deal with U.S., Liberal MP tells Mexican minister Reddit Related Stories ‘I’m not optimistic’: Political will for passage of new NAFTA rapidly evaporating in America Morelast_img read more

WatchThe Bank of Canada is underestimating the housing slump Capital Economics warns

first_img Share this storyThe Bank of Canada is underestimating the housing slump, Capital Economics warns Tumblr Pinterest Google+ LinkedIn Comment Facebook The Bank of Canada is pushing a private mortgage-backed securities market — but is anybody buying? The Bank of Canada is underestimating the housing slump, Capital Economics warns Developers are having a harder time securing their projects, senior economist says, which will bruise employment and consumption Esteban Duarte Twitter Email More Reddit Stephen Poloz’s dashboard: The latest charts that matter most to the Bank of Canada May 14, 20192:25 PM EDT Filed under News Economy How much do we owe against our homes? Not even the Bank of Canada knows for sure The Bank of Canada may be underestimating the extent of the cooling in the country’s housing market as well as its knock-on effects for the consumer-driven economy, according to research firm Capital Economics.Sales of pre-construction units in Toronto and Vancouver slowed in 2018, making it harder for developers to secure financing for their projects, said Stephen Brown, the firm’s senior economist for Canada. That in turn is likely to impact employment and consumption, which accounts for about 60 per cent of the country’s output.“The Bank of Canada is underestimating what’s to come in regards to residential investment,” Brown said in an interview Monday in Toronto. This is only the second time in 21 years that home prices have failed to rise in April Parkland requirement for new developments driving up GTA housing costs, study finds How Vancouver became the world’s ‘laundromat for foreign organized crime’ Capital Economics estimates that the Bank of Canada will cut rates twice this year, dropping the benchmark rate to 1.25 per cent, from 1.75 per cent. That’s far from consensus, with implied policy rates in the swaps market signalling just one rate cut over the next two years, Bloomberg data show.The research firm expects that families will have to use a bigger portion of their income to bolster savings because home equity will be constrained by muted price gains.The Bank of Canada is underestimating what’s to come in regards to residential investmentStephen Brown Bloomberg News Related Stories New home sales in Toronto declined at the start of the last year and remained flat since then, averaging 25,530 units per month, compared with a monthly average of 46,841 units in 2017, according to data from real estate consultant Altus Group. The housing starts adjustment is just beginning, with monthly averages since January 2018 at 39,301 units, compared with 39,703 average in 2017, according to data compiled by Capital Economics based on Statistics Canada data.“Condo developers have to sell about 70 per cent of the units in their condo before they start construction, in order to secure financing,” Brown said. “So the current housing starts represent homes that were actually sold, as pre-construction units, around 18 months ago.”He added that a similar trend is playing out in Vancouver.“It’s a niche data that not many are looking at it,” he said.Bloomberg.com 19 Comments Join the conversation →last_img read more

Save on ecobee smart thermostats from 139 in todays best Green Deals

first_imgSource: Charge Forward If you’ve been on the fence about finally investing in a smart thermostat, then today may just be the day you make the jump. Amazon has the ecobee3 lite smart thermostat on sale for $139 shipped. This is a part of a broader four day sale at various retailers, which takes $30 off the regular going rate and brings this thermostat to its best price of the year at Amazon. Those not ready to shell out up to $250 for an ecobee4 are going to want to consider this model instead (more on that below). You’ll still get automatic scheduling, HomeKit compatibility and more but will miss out on integrated Alexa features. Ecobee3 works with gas, oil, electric, dual fuel, conventional (2H/2C), and heat pump (4H/2C) systems. Rated 4.1/5 stars by over 1,000 Amazon reviewers. Head below for more deals. more…The post Save on ecobee smart thermostats from $139 in today’s best Green Deals, more appeared first on Electrek.last_img read more

Tesla car caught on fire while being investigated for another fire

first_imgA Tesla vehicle that was already being investigated as the potential cause of a garage fire two months ago has caught on fire again and completely burned down after being transported to a new location. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe the podcast.https://youtu.be/a80dwn_R-mcThe post Tesla car caught on fire while being investigated for another fire appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img

Michita all the rage to lift Oaks after trial win

first_imgHorse racing Horse racing Chris Cook at Goodwood · Gosden hoping for rain ahead of Classic bid· Lush Lashes friendless for Sunday’s Irish Guineas … we have a small favour to ask. The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.More people are reading and supporting The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we have chosen an approach that allows us to keep our journalism accessible to all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford. But we need your ongoing support to keep working as we do.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism, to maintain our openness and to protect our precious independence. Every reader contribution, big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Share on WhatsApp Michita all the rage to lift Oaks after trial win Share on Facebook “There’s a nice gap to the Irish Oaks, it’s not like it’s the next week. I think you’ll see Jim at Epsom.”It certainly looks as though Lush Lashes will not be turning up at The Curragh for Sunday’s 1,000 Guineas. William Hill reported yesterday that all the money was for others in the race and they were forced to cut market-leader Nahoodh twice, to 3-1 and then into 11-4.Royal Ascot next month is the most likely target for City Leader, who stayed on stoutly to land yesterday’s David Wilson Homes Stakes, formerly the Predominate. “His owners aren’t short of Derby winners,” said trainer Brian Meehan, explaining his immediate instinct for avoiding Epsom with the grey, but it is more than a quarter of a century since the Sangster family’s famous blue and green colours were carried to success in the Derby by the gutsy Golden Fleece and the matter may not yet be closed.”There’s sure to be a lot of thinking and we’ve got a bit of time to decide,” said Ben Sangster. “The jockey [Jamie Spencer] said to me, just go to Ascot, he’s not sure he’ll suit Epsom. I didn’t really ask him why not. Funnily enough, he suited Goodwood and Goodwood’s kind of twisty and up and down.”Course form may be the deciding factor, as City Leader is unbeaten in two starts at Ascot, so the odds favour a bid for the King Edward VII Stakes there. The colt remains unchanged at 50-1 for the Derby with Stan James after yesterday’s victory.Three of yesterday’s races were named in honour of Alan Ball, the World Cup-winning footballer who died last year. His 32-year-old son, Jimmy, spoke of his father’s passion for racing, which transcended his status as an unlucky punter.”He had his days but he always seemed to just hit the post. If he was in line for a treble, the third one would go down,” said Ball Jr, who followed the family tradition by putting a free £2,000 charity bet on Whistledownwind,only fourth behind City Leader.The British Horseracing Authority will hold a directions hearing today in the case of trainer Paul Blockley and jockey Dean McKeown, who were charged with corruption offences earlier this month. The case is the first of its kind to be brought by the BHA since the collapse of the Kieren Fallon trial in December.Ayr enquiry under wayThe British Horseracing Authority will hold an enquiry into the the abandonment of yesterday’s meeting at Ayr. A false patch of ground was found three furlongs from the winning post, and the meeting was called off on the advice of those including jockeys’ safety officer, Dale Gibson. Local trainer Jim Goldie, who had nine runners, said: “It could have been dolled off, but I understand why the decision was taken.” Michita won the Height of Fashion Stakes in impressive style. Photograph: Julian Herbert/Getty Images Goodwood’s Classic trials, the Lupe and the Predominate Stakes, have fallen to so many moderate horses in recent times that they lost those historic titles last year. But the Height Of Fashion Stakes, as the Lupe is now known, may have produced a high-quality winner yesterday in Michita, who set herself on the Oaks trail with an impressive 4½-length success.Michita is the latest in a seemingly endless line of classy three-year-old fillies from John Gosden’s yard. The Newmarket trainer sent out Infallible to be fourth in the 1,000 Guineas, while his Dar Re Mi was briefly prominent in the Oaks market after hacking up in a maiden contest at Sandown last month.But Dar Re Mi was beaten in her trial, last week’s Musidora Stakes at York, and it seems that Gosden is pinning his hopes on Michita. “You’d like a filly going to Epsom to have more experience but it shouldn’t put you off,” he said.A winner over a mile on her only outing as a two-year-old, Michita was predictably outpaced over seven furlongs on her reappearance. “Once you’ve won your maiden first time out, it’s very, very difficult to find a race – that was the only one for her in April,” Gosden explained. “Fortunately, that just settled her down, having a run – she was not too easy to saddle that day.”Gosden said he was now hoping for some rain ahead of the Oaks, as soft ground would undermine the chances of Lush Lashes, the current favourite. Jim Bolger, trainer of Lush Lashes, has indicated that he would rather save his filly for the Irish Oaks in mid-July, but Gosden laughingly dismissed such hesitation. “He’s going to find it hard to resist, isn’t he, let’s be honest. Just a bit! Since you’re here… Share on Pinterest Share via Email The Oaks Topicscenter_img Shares11 @claimsfive The Recap: sign up for the best of the Guardian’s sport coverage Support The Guardian Wed 21 May 2008 22.55 EDT First published on Wed 21 May 2008 22.55 EDT Read more Share via Email Share on Messenger Share on LinkedIn Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Twitter Reuse this contentlast_img read more

Finding the light in antimicrobials

first_imgWhilst many people have successfully mimicked antimicrobial peptides with polymers, the limiting step was the number of different combinations of building blocks you can use. We used simple robotics and a light controlled polymerization, which lets us do the chemistry open to air, without any sealed vials which are essential for most polymer syntheses”Professor Matthew Gibson, Lead Author Aug 14 2018Hundreds of polymers which kill drug-resistant superbugs in novel ways could be produced and tested using light using a novel method developed at the University of Warwick.The new methodology may help identify antimicrobials for a range of applications from personal care to coatings.Researchers from the Department of Chemistry and Warwick Medical School developed a way to synthesize large libraries of polymers, in such a way to make their screening for antimicrobial activity faster, and without the need to use sealed vials.By using multiple ‘building blocks’ in their polymers, new antimicrobials were identified – some of which appear to inhibit bacteria growth, contrary to predictions.The benefit of the method is that it allows screening of hundreds of different structures, enabling the researchers to ‘go fishing’ for new properties, which in this case was antibiotic activity.Antimicrobials are essential not just in the treatment of internal disease and infections, but also in personal care products, such as contact lenses or shampoo, in foods, or as topical creams.There is growing awareness of antimicrobial resistance and the need to develop innovative solutions to tackle microbial infection.Traditional anti-microbials (such as penicillin) work by inhibiting key cellular processes.The Warwick team, led by Professor Matthew Gibson, were instead inspired by host-defense peptides which are broad spectrum antimicrobials and function by breaking apart the membrane of bacteria. This article was originally published by the University of Warwick.last_img read more

Video Robot spots predatory worms floating slime balls under Arctic ice

first_imgSAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA—There’s a food web thriving under the Arctic ice—and an awful lot of it is slimy. This new video of life thriving in the murky cold comes courtesy of Nereid Under Ice (NUI), a lightweight, remotely operated vehicle connected to its surface ship by only a hair-thin fiber-optic tether. Scientists presented the first data from NUI’s maiden voyage here today at the American Geophysical Union’s fall meeting. NUI took its first dip in the Arctic in July, exploring the under–sea ice environment and relaying environmental data and video back to its operators in real time. There have been hints that there’s more biological productivity in the Arctic Ocean than once suspected (perhaps helped along by climate change): In 2012, scientists reported seeing massive blooms of algae proliferating under the sea ice. Now, the robot’s first findings are already helping scientists piece together more of this previously hidden under-ice food web, including more evidence of the under-ice algae, as well as tiny copepods, ctenophores (jellyfish), predatory marine worms called arrow worms, and abundant amounts of large floating slime balls, known to scientists as larvaceans. What links these lower members of the web to seals and polar bears isn’t yet clear; scientists saw no evidence of the most obvious missing element—fish—during the expedition.(Video credit: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)last_img read more

Tom and Jerry syndrome causes seizures in old cats

first_imgMice and rats communicate in the ultrasonic frequency range, and it’s thought that cats evolved the ability to hear those high-pitched squeaks to better hunt their prey. Now, a new study suggests that sensitivity to higher pitched sounds may cause seizures in some older cats. After receiving reports of the problem, nicknamed the “Tom and Jerry syndrome” because of how the cartoon cat is often startled by sounds, researchers surveyed cat owners and examined their pets’ medical records, looking for insight into the types and durations of seizures and the sounds that provoked them. In 96 cats, they found evidence of the syndrome they call feline audiogenic reflex seizures. The most common types of seizure-eliciting sounds included crinkling tinfoil, clanking a metal spoon on a ceramic feeding bowl, and clinking glass. The severity of the seizure ranged from brief muscle jerks to more serious episodes where the cat lost consciousness and stiffened and jerked for several minutes, the researchers report online today in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. Both pedigree and nonpedigree cats were susceptible, although one breed was common: Thirty of the 96 cats were Birmans (pictured). Because the seizures coincided with old age—the average age of onset was 15 years—veterinarians could miss the disorder while dealing with the felines’ other health issues, the researchers say. Minimizing exposure to the problematic sounds and preliminary, therapeutic trials with levetiracetam—an anticonvulsant medication used to control epilepsy—among a small sample of the cats seemed to help limit the occurrence of seizures.last_img read more

Embryo editing to make babies would be irresponsible says DNA summit statement

first_imgIt would currently be “irresponsible” to use new DNA editing tools to alter the genomes of human embryos, eggs, or sperm in order to produce a baby, the organizing committee of an international summit on the issue concluded today in a statement.But the group did not rule out such embryo editing later, if safety questions are resolved and society develops a consensus on ethical and legal issues. And the group said basic, preclinical research involving human embryos, sperm, and eggs should continue. It did not endorse any kind of ban or moratorium on such research.The statement—which differs little from similar previous statements from prominent groups—came after 3 days of intense discussion among scientists, government officials, science policy experts, philosophers, and others in Washington, D.C. The unusual gathering, sponsored by U.S., U.K., and Chinese scientific societies, explored the promise and perils of new methods to alter human DNA, focusing considerable debate on the prospect for altering the genomes of eggs, sperm, or embryos. This so-called germline engineering is seen by many as crossing a line, because it bestows permanent genetic changes on a new individual and any offspring they may have. Yet there are circumstances in which such DNA editing could prevent the transmission of genetic diseases, so some advocate it shouldn’t be banned, as it is in many countries. Here is the complete statement from the organizing committee, which was led by David Baltimore of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena:On Human Gene Editing: International Summit StatementScientific advances in molecular biology over the past 50 years have produced remarkable progress in medicine. Some of these advances have also raised important ethical and societal issues – for example, about the use of recombinant DNA technologies or embryonic stem cells. The scientific community has consistently recognized its responsibility to identify and confront these issues. In these cases, engagement by a range of stakeholders has led to solutions that have made it possible to obtain major benefits for human health while appropriately addressing societal issues.Fundamental research into the ways by which bacteria defend themselves against viruses has recently led to the development of powerful new techniques that make it possible to perform gene editing – that is, precisely altering genetic sequences – in living cells, including those of humans, at much higher accuracy and efficiency than ever before possible. These techniques are already in broad use in biomedical research. They may also enable wide-ranging clinical applications in medicine. At the same time, the prospect of human genome editing raises many important scientific, ethical, and societal questions.After three days of thoughtful discussion of these issues, the members of the Organizing Committee for the International Summit on Human Gene Editing have reached the following conclusions:1. Basic and Preclinical Research. Intensive basic and preclinical research is clearly needed and should proceed, subject to appropriate legal and ethical rules and oversight, on (i) technologies for editing genetic sequences in human cells, (ii) the potential benefits and risks of proposed clinical uses, and (iii) understanding the biology of human embryos and germline cells.  If, in the process of research, early human embryos or germline cells undergo gene editing, the modified cells should not be used to establish a pregnancy.2. Clinical Use: Somatic. Many promising and valuable clinical applications of gene editing are directed at altering genetic sequences only in somatic cells – that is, cells whose genomes are not transmitted to the next generation. Examples that have been proposed include editing genes for sickle-cell anemia in blood cells or for improving the ability of immune cells to target cancer. There is a need to understand the risks, such as inaccurate editing, and the potential benefits of each proposed genetic modification.  Because proposed clinical uses are intended to affect only the individual who receives them, they can be appropriately and rigorously evaluated within existing and evolving regulatory frameworks for gene therapy, and regulators can weigh risks and potential benefits in approving clinical trials and therapies.3. Clinical Use: Germline. Gene editing might also be used, in principle, to make genetic alterations in gametes or embryos, which will be carried by all of the cells of a resulting child and will be passed on to subsequent generations as part of the human gene pool. Examples that have been proposed range from avoidance of severe inherited diseases to ‘enhancement’ of human capabilities. Such modifications of human genomes might include the introduction of naturally occurring variants or totally novel genetic changes thought to be beneficial.Germline editing poses many important issues, including: (i) the risks of inaccurate editing (such as off-target mutations) and incomplete editing of the cells of early-stage embryos (mosaicism); (ii) the difficulty of predicting harmful effects that genetic changes may have under the wide range of circumstances experienced by the human population, including interactions with other genetic variants and with the environment; (iii) the obligation to consider implications for both the individual and the future generations who will carry the genetic alterations; (iv) the fact that, once introduced into the human population, genetic alterations would be difficult to remove and would not remain within any single community or country; (v) the possibility that permanent genetic ‘enhancements’ to subsets of the population could exacerbate social inequities or be used coercively; and (vi) the moral and ethical considerations in purposefully altering human evolution using this technology.It would be irresponsible to proceed with any clinical use of germline editing unless and until (i) the relevant safety and efficacy issues have been resolved, based on appropriate understanding and balancing of risks, potential benefits, and alternatives, and (ii) there is broad societal consensus about the appropriateness of the proposed application. Moreover, any clinical use should proceed only under appropriate regulatory oversight. At present, these criteria have not been met for any proposed clinical use: the safety issues have not yet been adequately explored; the cases of most compelling benefit are limited; and many nations have legislative or regulatory bans on germline modification. However, as scientific knowledge advances and societal views evolve, the clinical use of germline editing should be revisited on a regular basis.4. Need for an Ongoing Forum. While each nation ultimately has the authority to regulate activities under its jurisdiction, the human genome is shared among all nations. The international community should strive to establish norms concerning acceptable uses of human germline editing and to harmonize regulations, in order to discourage unacceptable activities while advancing human health and welfare.We therefore call upon the national academies that co-hosted the summit – the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and U.S. National Academy of Medicine; the Royal Society; and the Chinese Academy of Sciences – to take the lead in creating an ongoing international forum to discuss potential clinical uses of gene editing; help inform decisions by national policymakers and others; formulate recommendations and guidelines; and promote coordination among nations.The forum should be inclusive among nations and engage a wide range of perspectives and expertise – including from biomedical scientists, social scientists, ethicists, health care providers, patients and their families, people with disabilities, policymakers, regulators, research funders, faith leaders, public interest advocates, industry representatives, and members of the general public.Some of ScienceInsider’s past coverage (most recent stories first):Gene drive workshop shows technology’s promise, or peril, remains far offGene-editing method revives hopes for transplanting pig organs into peopleUK researcher applies for permission to edit embryo genomesResearch on gene editing in embryos is justified, group saysJournal responds to controversy over embryo gene-editing paperChinese paper on embryo engineering splits scientific communityDon’t edit embryos, researchers warn US researchers call for greater oversight of powerful genetic technology Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more

House bills would keep DOE science spending flat eliminate ARPAE and cut

first_img House bills would keep DOE science spending flat, eliminate ARPA-E, and cut farm science By David MalakoffJun. 27, 2017 , 2:30 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) research arm would get $1.1 billion. That is roughly $100 million less than this year but about $139 million above the president’s request. USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture, which includes programs that fund academic research, would be cut by about 2%, to $830 million, which is $60 million above the president’s request.Energy cutsOverall, DOE’s energy and technology development programs would see a cut of $1.7 billion, to $9.6 billion, which is $2.3 billion above the president’s request. DOE’s renewable energy programs would see a 46% cut, or $968 million below the current level of $2.1 billion. Even so, that amount is $468 million above the president’s request for those programs.Fossil fuel programs would dip by $33 million, to $635 million, whereas nuclear energy programs would shrink by $48 million, to $969 million. Both the fossil fuel and nuclear numbers are well above the president’s request.The numbers for each of the six line offices within DOE’s Office of Science won’t be released until the full appropriations committee takes up the bills later this summer. Senate appropriators have yet to begin marking up any of the 12 bills that set spending for every federal agency. And many observers predict that Congress will extend 2017 funding levels well into the 2018 fiscal year before legislators reach final agreement on the 2018 budget. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) science spending would remain flat, and agricultural research budgets would see cuts, under 2018 spending bills released today by the U.S. House of Representatives appropriations panels. The two bills (energy and agriculture) will be taken up tomorrow in the first step of an annual process that could stretch into the next fiscal year, which begins 1 October.Although details are lacking, the bills appear to reject the deep science cuts proposed by President Donald Trump. However, DOE programs aimed at developing and deploying renewable energy sources would see major reductions under the House proposal, although less than what the White House requested.DOE’s Office of Science would get $5.39 billion in a bill covering energy and water projects at several agencies. That is the same as this year’s level, and $919 million above the White House’s 2018 request. The bill would also eliminate the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, created in 2009 to support high-risk projects with great commercial potential, according to Greenwire. Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe OGphoto/iStockphoto last_img read more

Artificial intelligence just made guessing your password a whole lot easier

first_img Email weerapatkiatdumrong/iStockphoto Last week, the credit reporting agency Equifax announced that malicious hackers had leaked the personal information of 143 million people in their system. That’s reason for concern, of course, but if a hacker wants to access your online data by simply guessing your password, you’re probably toast in less than an hour. Now, there’s more bad news: Scientists have harnessed the power of artificial intelligence (AI) to create a program that, combined with existing tools, figured more than a quarter of the passwords from a set of more than 43 million LinkedIn profiles. Yet the researchers say the technology may also be used to beat baddies at their own game.The work could help average users and companies measure the strength of passwords, says Thomas Ristenpart, a computer scientist who studies computer security at Cornell Tech in New York City but was not involved with the study. “The new technique could also potentially be used to generate decoy passwords to help detect breaches.”The strongest password guessing programs, John the Ripper and hashCat, use several techniques. One is simple brute force, in which they randomly try lots of combinations of characters until they get the right one. But other approaches involve extrapolating from previously leaked passwords and probability methods to guess each character in a password based on what came before. On some sites, these programs have guessed more than 90% of passwords. But they’ve required many years of manual coding to build up their plans of attack. By Matthew HutsonSep. 15, 2017 , 2:57 PM Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe A new tool in deep learning renders passwords less secure.center_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Artificial intelligence just made guessing your password a whole lot easier Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) The new study aimed to speed this up by applying deep learning, a brain-inspired approach at the cutting edge of AI. Researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, started with a so-called generative adversarial network, or GAN, which comprises two artificial neural networks. A “generator” attempts to produce artificial outputs (like images) that resemble real examples (actual photos), while a “discriminator” tries to detect real from fake. They help refine each other until the generator becomes a skilled counterfeiter.Giuseppe Ateniese, a computer scientist at Stevens and paper co-author, compares the generator and discriminator to a police sketch artist and eye witness, respectively; the sketch artist is trying to produce something that can pass as an accurate portrait of the criminal. GANs have been used to make realistic images, but have not been applied much to text.The Stevens team created a GAN it called PassGAN and compared it with two versions of hashCat and one version of John the Ripper. The scientists fed each tool tens of millions of leaked passwords from a gaming site called RockYou, and asked them to generate hundreds of millions of new passwords on their own. Then they counted how many of these new passwords matched a set of leaked passwords from LinkedIn, as a measure of how successful they’d be at cracking them.On its own, PassGAN generated 12% of the passwords in the LinkedIn set, whereas its three competitors generated between 6% and 23%. But the best performance came from combining PassGAN and hashCat. Together, they were able to crack 27% of passwords in the LinkedIn set, the researchers reported this month in a draft paper posted on arXiv. Even failed passwords from PassGAN seemed pretty realistic: saddracula, santazone, coolarse18.Using GANs to help guess passwords is “novel,” says Martin Arjovsky, a computer scientist who studies the technology at New York University in New York City. The paper “confirms that there are clear, important problems where applying simple machine learning solutions can bring a crucial advantage,” he says.Still, Ristenpart says “It’s unclear to me if one needs the heavy machinery of GANs to achieve such gains.” Perhaps even simpler machine learning techniques could have assisted hashCat just as much, he says. (Arjovsky concurs.) Indeed, an efficient neural net produced by Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylavania, recently showed promise, and Ateniese plans to compare it directly with PassGAN before submitting his paper for peer review.Ateniese says that though in this pilot demonstration PassGAN gave hashCat an assist, he’s “certain” that future iterations could surpass hashCat. That’s in part because hashCat uses fixed rules and was unable to produce more than 650 million passwords on its own. PassGan, which invents its own rules, can create passwords indefinitely. “It’s generating millions of passwords as we speak,” he says. Ateniese also says PassGAN will improve with more layers in the neural networks and training on many more leaked passwords.He compares PassGAN to AlphaGo, the Google DeepMind program that recently beat a human champion at the board game Go using deep learning algorithms. “AlphaGo was devising new strategies that experts had never seen before,” Ateniese says. “So I personally believe that if you give enough data to PassGAN, it will be able to come up with rules that humans cannot think about.”And if you’re worried about your own security, experts suggest ways to create strong passwords—such as by making them long (but still easy to remember)—and using two-step authentication.last_img read more

Why are countries creating public random number generators

first_img In Chile, politicians resent the Comptroller General, which audits government officials to prevent corruption. The audits are supposed to be random—but scrutinized officials sometimes complain about unfair targeting. “The auditors have to convince the public they’re doing their work honestly,” says Alejandro Hevia, a computer scientist at the University of Chile in Santiago. Along with researchers around the world, he is developing technology that could persuade critics that audits are truly random: public random number generators.On 10 July, Hevia’s team will unveil an online random number service. Later in July, the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will launch its Randomness Beacon as a permanent service, upgrading a pilot program that began in 2013. Brazil, too, is planning a beacon, by the end of 2019. All aim to improve on commercial random number generators, not only by being free, but by generating the random numbers through transparent protocols and permanently archiving them. The services could benefit everyday applications such as cryptography and lotteries—and also research. Some scientific simulation methods rely on random numbers, and clinicians could use them in drug trials to fairly assign who gets a treatment or placebo.”We want to put randomness on the internet for people to use in whatever way they can find,” says Rene Peralta, a computer scientist at NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland, who leads the U.S. effort. “I think of it as digital infrastructure.” CountryBeacon startRandomness source CountryUnited StatesBeacon startJulyRandomness sourceCircuit noise CountryChileBeacon startJulyRandomness sourceCircuit noise, earthquakes, crypto-currency, Twitter, radio streams CountryBrazilBeacon startEnd of 2019Randomness sourceCircuit noise, radioactive decay statistics Why are countries creating public random number generators? Email Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country By Sophia ChenJun. 28, 2018 , 12:00 PM ISTOCK.COM/TOSTPHOTO ADAPTED BY C. AYCOCK/SCIENCE center_img The numbers could also boost security by serving as timestamps to authenticate digital documents. The idea resembles the classic kidnapper’s protocol: To prove a hostage is alive, a kidnapper photographs the hostage with that day’s newspaper. Similarly, a random number linked to a digital document proves the document was not modified any earlier than the number was generated.An early motivation for public randomness was to help develop elegant cryptographic techniques called zero-knowledge protocols, which require each party to have access to the same random numbers. “I can prove to a server that I know what the password is but never actually have to tell it,” says Carlisle Adams, a computer scientist at the University of Ottawa. “The security would go up a million-fold.” However, the protocols are currently too slow, so beacon developers have pursued other applications, Machado says.A beacon can only be useful for security applications if people believe it’s random. Some cryptologists have a lingering distrust of NIST, says Bryan Ford, a computer scientist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. In 2007, one of NIST’s encryption standards contained a security vulnerability, and news reports implied the U.S. National Security Agency had intentionally inserted it. “In general, I trust NIST just fine,” Ford says. He says the beacons are “probably fine for applications where you need some randomness, but security isn’t critical.”Peralta is aware of NIST’s image problem, and his team is trying to boost its beacon’s trustworthiness. For example, they log the time-stamped random numbers by pairing each one with two other numbers: one called a hash that is calculated from the current number, and the previous entry’s hash. This logging method creates a self-referencing chain, so if a hacker changed a number in the sequence, the subsequent number would refer to an incorrect hash, and it would be obvious that someone altered the log. In addition, the U.S., Chilean, and Brazilian beacons all use the same format, so users can mix and match as they please. “People don’t have to trust the randomness from NIST because they can combine it with the ones from Chile and Brazil,” Hevia says.Eventually, the computer scientists want to move to a hack-proof, gold standard of randomness: quantum-generated random numbers. Quantum objects don’t have a defined state until you measure them, which means that a random outcome is guaranteed by the laws of nature. In April, NIST said it had developed a quantum random number generator based on single photons, which it plans to integrate with the public beacon in the future.NIST is planning to hold workshops in the next year to brainstorm new uses for its Randomness Beacon. Peralta expects some creative ideas. During the Randomness Beacon’s prototype years, one man thought God spoke to him through the beacon. He chose Bible passages based on its output—and when the scripture sequences didn’t make sense, he wrote to Peralta complaining about it. “I get funny mail like that,” Peralta says. He is expecting better ideas. A sequence of truly random numbers exhibits no patterns or predictability. Knowing the sequence one day should not provide any hints to the sequence published a minute or a day later. But that ideal is not easy to attain. Some online random number generators rely on algorithms, which means their output is, in principle, predictable; others depend on random physical phenomena. The NIST beacon, which generates a string of 512 0s and 1s, or bits, every 60 seconds, combines the two approaches. It starts with output from two commercial random number generators that rely on electronic noise in circuits, then increases the numbers’ unpredictability by combining them in a mathematical operation that reduces underlying bias. Chile’s beacon combines circuit noise with other disorderly data such as real-time earthquake measurements, online Twitter posts, radio streams, and cryptocurrency transactions.Readily available, trustworthy random numbers could be used to deliver public services more fairly, computer scientists say. Besides trying to help the Comptroller General maintain its credibility, Hevia is pushing to use Chile’s beacon to assign students to schools through a lottery. In the United States, the government could use public random numbers to assign visas. “If you’re an applicant and you were not chosen, you would like to know that it was because you weren’t lucky enough, and not because you are Muslim,” Peralta says. Brazil wants to use its service to assign court cases to judges, says Raphael Machado, a computer scientist at Brazil’s National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology in Rio de Janeiro. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Taking one’s chances Several countries are set to unveil public random number generators, or beacons.last_img read more

NASA is planning four of the largest space telescopes ever But which

first_img By Daniel CleryDec. 13, 2018 , 2:00 PM NASA is planning four of the largest space telescopes ever. But which one will fly? Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) EIKO OJALA Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Whichever concept rises to the top, researchers hope it has a smoother path to space than the missions chosen in previous surveys. The 2001 survey picked the JWST as its top priority, but that telescope will be lucky to meet its scheduled launch in 2021, 2 decades later. WFIRST was the top pick of the 2010 survey, but it won’t fly before 2025. There’s a general sense that the initial proposals were immature and unrealistic, says Roger Blandford of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, who chaired the 2010 survey. “There’s frustration all around.” Origins would look back in time to see how dust and molecules coalesced to create the first galaxies and black holes and how the disks around young stars clump into exoplanets. But the JWST and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in Chile can capture some of the same wavelengths, squeezing Origins’s discovery space.Lynx would take up the mantle of NASA’s aging Chandra X-ray Observatory, zooming in on hot gas swirling into a black hole or jetting from the center of a galaxy. That would placate x-ray astronomers still smarting from the low rating their International X-ray Observatory proposal received in the 2010 decadal survey. “We got robbed at the last decadal,” says STScI x-ray astronomer Rachel Osten. “Is it time for x-rays?”Whichever mission wins the decadal’s favor, funders will ask: How do we know it won’t be another JWST, swallowing up budgets and delaying other projects? Study director Dwayne Day of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) in Washington, D.C., which organizes the decadals, says the survey is taking a sophisticated approach to estimating costs, hoping “to avoid sticker shock, committing to something that is too expensive to afford.”Day says project teams usually estimate costs by tallying labor, materials, and testing. “It’s good, but it leaves out unforeseen circumstances, threats.” So, for the past decade NASEM has been paying The Aerospace Corporation of El Segundo, California, to apply a cost model called CATE (for Cost And Technical Evaluation) to any proposals a decadal wishes to consider.CATE draws on a database that goes back decades and contains details of cost and performance for more than 150 NASA missions and 700 instruments. When presented with a new mission, CATE can say how similar missions have fared in the past. The model is particularly powerful in assessing the things that can go wrong. “The best forecasters can’t have hands on all the unknown unknowns,” says Debra Emmons, a senior manager with Aerospace in Chantilly, Virginia. For example, if a sensor takes longer than expected to develop, or if an international partner delivers an instrument late, the project can be delayed and costs can rise. “[CATE] assesses technical threats, monetizes them, and makes a forward projection,” she says. Paul Hertz, NASA’s astrophysics chief in Washington, D.C., calls it “a great addition to the tool set.”The project teams are wary of the exercise, fearing that if they produce a scientifically bold and technically challenging proposal, CATE might judge it to be risky and expensive, Emmons says. And NASA wants the four project teams to be ambitious. “The missions had better be hard to do because the questions are hard,” Hertz says.But with the still-grounded JWST on everybody’s mind, astronomers are eager to ensure that the winner of the great space telescope bake-off is at once dreamy and real. Blandford says: “It gives a rationale for making these terrible decisions.”For more on these telescopes, also see here.*Correction, 2 January, 1:15 p.m.: An earlier version of the story misstated the location of L2. Sciencetargets Spectrum Firstgalaxies Firstsupermassiveblack holes Planet-forming disks Earth-likeexoplanets Visible Ultraviolet Infrared X-ray ORIGINS HABEX LUVOIR LYNXcenter_img A race to the stars Four NASA space telescope concepts targeting different wavelengths and goals are competing to fly in the 2030s. Astronomers are now picking a favorite. Explore NASA’s dream space telescopes in our interactive visual For NASA astronomers, this was not a good year. In June, a review board found that the agency’s prized observatory—the already overdue and vastly overbudget $8.8 billion James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)—was still years away from taking flight and capturing the faint light of the universe’s first stars. The holdup: torn sunshields and loose bolts. Also in trouble was the next big astrophysics mission in line, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), intended to pin down the nature of mysterious dark energy by surveying wide swaths of the sky. Not even off the drawing board, WFIRST was predicted to burst its $3.2 billion budget by $400 million, another review panel found—not a plus for a mission that the administration of President Donald Trump was already thinking of canceling.Yet astronomers are about to look skyward and dream even bigger dreams. The decadal survey in astrophysics, which sets priorities for future missions by NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation, began last month. Dozens of astronomers, broken into committees, will identify science goals and develop a wish list of telescopes, both on the ground and in space, that could best address them. One of the toughest tasks will be to decide which—if any—of four proposed successors to the JWST and WFIRST most deserves to fly as a NASA flagship observatory. It would be launched in the 2030s to L2, a gravitationally balanced spot beyond Earth’s orbit, on the far side of Earth from the sun.In a special online presentation, Science examines those dream telescopes. The Large UV Optical Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR), a 15-meter-wide giant with 40 times the light-collecting power of the Hubble Space Telescope, is a bid to look back at the universe’s first galaxies, and to answer the question: Is there life elsewhere in the universe? The Habitable Exoplanet Observatory (HabEx) would also focus on that question, but with a smaller mirror. HabEx would fly in tandem with a separate spacecraft carrying a starshade the size of a soccer field. By blocking the glare of a star, the starshade would reveal Earth-like exoplanets, enabling HabEx to scrutinize their faint light for signatures of life. The Lynx Xray Observatory would gather x-rays from the universe’s first black holes to learn how they help galaxies form and evolve. And the Origins Space Telescope, with machinery to chill its telescope to just 4° above absolute zero, would study a little-explored kind of infrared radiation emanating from the cold gases and dust that fuel star and planet formation. Email Related content This time, NASA wants the concepts on a firmer footing. Not only did the agency identify the four flagship concepts early, back in 2015, but it has since funded teams to work up rough designs for each one. In June 2019, the teams will deliver to NASA a report that includes two concepts—one expensive and big, the other constrained and relatively affordable at less than $5 billion in most cases. (Here, Science examines the larger concepts.)”This prepreparation will put the survey in a better situation to evaluate the possibilities,” says Fiona Harrison, a high-energy astrophysicist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena who was named last month as co-chair of the survey along with Robert Kennicutt of Texas A&M University in College Station. The product of the decadal survey—a prioritized list of missions delivered in 2020—is supposed to be consensual, in part so that agencies and scientists can lobby Congress for funding with a unified voice. But competition among the four flagships will be fierce.LUVOIR’s backers tout its wide appeal as a general-purpose observatory in the mold of Hubble. LUVOIR’s instruments cover the parts of the spectrum where the universe is brightest, and the huge size of its mirror means it can peer the farthest, at the faintest objects, with the sharpest vision. “It transcends astrophysics,” says Jason Kalirai of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland. Critics argue that LUVOIR’s huge mirror will lead to a huge price tag and inevitable delays, as the JWST’s 6.5-meter mirror already has.Proponents of the cheaper HabEx hope it will ride high on surging enthusiasm for exoplanets—and a concern for simplicity and thrift. But flying in formation with a distant starshade is an untested technique. And though HabEx can study a few nearby planets in detail, its smaller mirror—4 meters compared with LUVOIR’s 15 meters—means more distant worlds will be out of reach. LUVOIR and HabEx will compete head-to-head for the committee’s attention, and HabEx and LUVOIR team member Chris Stark of STScI says there won’t be a need to launch both. “There are only so many nearby stars.” C. Bickel/Science last_img read more

Gamechanging gene edit turned this anole lizard into an albino

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Ashley M. Rasys and Hannah C. Schriever ‘Game-changing’ gene edit turned this anole lizard into an albino The mighty genome editor CRISPR isn’t so powerful in lizards and snakes: Never before has it been used to edit the embryos of these reptiles. Now, researchers have come up with a workaround—by editing the immature, unfertilized eggs of brown anole lizards.Researchers typically edit with CRISPR by injecting it into a single-celled fertilized egg, creating a DNA change that is present in all subsequent cells. But female anoles are a special challenge: They store sperm in their oviducts for long periods, making it difficult to time the introduction of CRISPR to fertilization. They also form eggshells at fertilization, and it’s extremely difficult to insert a needle at that stage without damaging the embryo.So researchers from the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens instead injected the CRISPR complex into immature eggs still in the ovaries, targeting a gene that produces tyrosinase, an enzyme that affects pigmentation. After altering 146 immature eggs from 21 lizards, the scientists got their payoff: four albino offspring, they report in a preprint posted this week on bioRxiv. To produce the change in coloration, both maternal and paternal genes must have mutated, making the researchers suspect that CRISPR edited the egg genes and then stuck around, crippling the paternal genes after fertilization. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email By Jon CohenApr. 1, 2019 , 4:45 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) The new technique, which the scientists say will likely work in many other lizard and snake species, “is a game changer,” tweeted Tony Gamble, an evolutionary biologist who studies geckos at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. UGA’s Douglas Menke, the mouse developmental geneticist who led the experiment, was more to the point: “The whole field of developmental genetics has left reptiles in the dust.” Until now.last_img read more

A growing sensory smog threatens the ability of fish to communicate navigate

first_img Researchers don’t know whether such interference has affected overall populations of cod and haddock. But scientists worry about subtle harms that could ultimately take a toll. “I think the critical issue … is the impact on the soundscape,” says biologist Arthur Popper of the University of Maryland in College Park. At least 800 fish species make sounds. But “even those that don’t communicate with sound are still listening to their environment,” Popper says. They use sound to identify predators, for example, or suitable habitat.A noisier world could therefore have “potentially dire consequences” for fish, warned the authors of a 2018 meta-analysis, published in Global Change Biology, which examined 42 pertinent studies. Biologist Kieran Cox of the University of Victoria in Canada and co-authors found that noise can hurt fishes’ ability to find food, increase their risk of being eaten, and reduce their reproductive success.Just how well many fish can hear in the first place is uncertain. “What we don’t know is so gigantic,” Popper says. Studying fish behavior in the ocean over long periods is challenging. But laboratory studies have their own limitations, Popper points out: Aquariums can change how sound waves travel, and confined fish may not behave as they would in the wild.Scientists do know that fish are vulnerable to loud events. Popper’s laboratory, for example, used a large contraption to mimic the sounds created by a pile being hammered into the sea floor. The researchers found that as the pounding sound passes through a fish’s body, the swim bladder can knock into other tissues hard enough to cause serious injuries. In the wild, fish deaths have been observed near areas of pile driving. Fish in the open ocean can often flee far from loud noises, Popper notes, but those in more constrained freshwater lakes and rivers likely can’t escape the din.Murky outcomesThe belly of a male three-spined stickleback, normally dull in color but stained red-orange for the breeding season, blushes even more deeply as he swims toward a female. He faces her and repeats a zigzagging dance, darting left and right. If he’s lucky, the female follows him to his nest in the sand and lays her eggs.”They’re quite cute when they perform their courtship behavior!” says ecologist Ulrika Candolin of the University of Helsinki. Sticklebacks are widespread in the ocean and in lakes; the population she studies lives in the slightly salty Baltic Sea. In recent years, she says, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution has fertilized algal blooms so severe that, on warm days, they turn the Baltic’s water green.In waters thick with algae, both laboratory and field studies have shown that romance-minded sticklebacks “have more difficulties detecting each other,” Candolin says. When a pair does connect, the male spends longer than usual performing his display. And the female spends more time inspecting the male, as though unsure of what she’s seeing.Such visual interference can harm sexual selection, Candolin and colleagues found. Stickleback mating becomes more random in murky water, with females having a greater chance of selecting a less fit male, they reported in a 2016 Ecology paper. The consequences include having fewer surviving offspring. (Candolin notes that smell might also be a factor in poor mate choices—the algal blooms may obscure scent information that female sticklebacks would normally use to judge males.) Try, for a moment, to be a fish. As you swim through dim waters, you see shapes moving past and watch for threats. You hear other animals calling or producing rasps and crackles by scraping together rigid body parts. The water is a tapestry of smells that reveals predators and potential mates, food, and the route home.Now, imagine that nothing makes sense—the tapestry has unraveled. Smells still reach you, but their meanings are muddled. You listen for calls from your kin, but all you hear is the roar of a passing boat. You can’t tell whether that looming shadow is a friend or foe.When many people think of threats to the world’s fish, overfishing or vanishing reefs might leap to mind. Increasingly, however, scientists also worry about a subtler danger: how human activities might interfere with the senses fish use to perceive the world. Noise from ships and construction, murkier waters caused by pollution, and rising ocean acidification from the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are all possible culprits. In laboratories and in the wild, scientists study exactly how those factors might affect a fish’s ability to communicate, navigate, and survive. Danielle Dixson, University of Delaware Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country It doesn’t seem like there’s a lot of wiggle room for evolution or natural selection to take place. Email V. Altounian/Science Acidification similarly affects fish vision and hearing, perhaps also by scrambling GABA receptors. In one study, researchers treated young damselfish with high-CO2 water and then placed a plastic bag holding a predatory fish in their tank—so the damselfish could see the predator, but not smell it. Normally, that apparition would make the damselfish lie low. Instead, fish from acidified water ignored or swam close to the bag. In another study, researchers used an underwater speaker to play young clownfish a recording of a coral reef teeming with predators. Clownfish raised in high-CO2 water didn’t flee from the sound, as they normally would.Other researchers have found that otoliths, the little chunks of calcium carbonate in the inner ears of vertebrates, are larger than normal in some (but not all) of the fish species they raised in acidified waters. Changes to otolith size could affect fish hearing and orientation, researchers say.Different fish species are vulnerable to different degrees of ocean acidification. In one study, researchers found that conditions mimicking an atmospheric CO2 level of 700 parts per million (ppm) addled about half of clownfish; all the fish were affected at 850 ppm. At current emission rates, fish populations could experience those levels well before the end of the century, leaving little time to adapt. “It doesn’t seem like there’s a lot of wiggle room for evolution or natural selection to take place,” Dixson says.A rising cacophonyIt’s early spring in the Atlantic Ocean, and an adult cod is journeying back to his preferred spawning grounds to find a mate. He grunts while he swims. He and the other migrating cod add their grunts to a marine cacophony: the barks, mutters, clucks, and chirps of other fish; the singing of whales; the steady munching of sea urchins below. Light rain above tinkles musically, reaching a crescendo when heavier storms pass. The noises reverberate in the cod’s belly, where his balloonlike swim bladder acts as an extension of his ears.What cod or other migrating fish are saying as they travel is not clear. They may be calling to stragglers, synchronizing migration or spawning, or establishing dominance. But clearly, the fish increasingly must compete with human noise sources such as recreational boats, commercial ships, pile driving, sonar, and deep-sea mining.Marine ecologist Jenni Stanley at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Northeast Fisheries Science Center and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts has measured the impact of the added noise. She and colleagues recorded ambient underwater sounds at spawning sites for cod and haddock in Massachusetts Bay. Unlike the grunting cod, haddock produce an insistent knocking sound that can go on for hours. At times with less competing noise from vessels, the fish calls could carry more than 20 meters, the researchers reported in 2017 in Scientific Reports. But at noisier times, the calls carried only a meter or so before being drowned out. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Ocean acidification can confuse how a clownfish reacts to predators. Dixson is building on research showing that acidification can jumble a fish’s response to smells. For example, she and colleagues reported in Ecology Letters in 2010 that young clownfish raised in more acidic waters were strongly attracted to the smell of a predator, which the fish would normally avoid. In some predatory fish, acidification had the opposite effect. Dixson and co-authors found that after 5 days in water with high levels of CO2, sharks called smooth dogfish avoided the smell of their prey. Other researchers found a similar result in the brown dottyback, a reef-dwelling predator.Acidification also seems to cause other behavioral changes. In boldness tests—in which researchers approach fish with a blunt object to make them retreat—fish treated with acidic water come back out of hiding sooner. Those fish are like angry teenagers, Dixson says. “They’re really aggressive, but they really don’t know what they’re doing.”The problem isn’t that acidified water damages fish noses, Dixson says. Instead, the issue is apparently in the brain. Multiple mechanisms may be at work. One strong possibility is that acidic conditions interfere with brain cell receptors that respond to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter. All vertebrates share GABA receptors, which inhibit neuron activity. They are “like the brake on electrical circuits in the brain,” says biologist Göran Nilsson of the University of Oslo who, along with Dixson and others, first highlighted the potential connection between GABA receptors, fish behavior, and acidification in a 2012 Nature Climate Change paper.Normally, when GABA binds to a receptor, it opens a channel that lets negatively charged chloride ions flow into the neuron. But that flow reverses in fish living in acidified water, studies suggest. That’s because, physiologically, the fish cope with the more acidic environment by accumulating bicarbonate ions, which are basic, and by shedding chloride ions. When the channel is opened, chloride ions flow out of the neuron instead of into it, and the neuronal “brake actually becomes an accelerator,” Nilsson says. That hypothesis has drawn support from studies in which researchers dose fish with gabazine, a drug that suppresses GABA receptors. After a quick dip in gabazine-laced water, formerly confused fish act normal again.center_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe By Elizabeth PrestonJun. 20, 2019 , 2:00 PM A growing sensory smog threatens the ability of fish to communicate, navigate, and survive So far, Candolin notes, the sloppier mating caused by murky waters isn’t hurting stickleback populations in the Baltic. Their numbers are actually growing; a decline in predators, also due to ecosystem changes, might be a factor. But Candolin’s work has helped highlight how visual pollution might take a toll in the future. “Females are wasting their time and energy” when they select suboptimal mates, says Grant Brown, an ecologist at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada, who says Candolin’s work on mate choice is “very nicely done.”Another risk of not clearly seeing your partner is that you will mate with the wrong species. Africa’s Lake Victoria, for example, hosts hundreds of species of fish called cichlids. Females choose mates on the basis of their distinctive bright colors. But the number of cichlid species has declined, researchers found in the 1990s. Meanwhile, runoff from deforestation and agriculture has fertilized and clouded the lake waters, causing females to struggle to recognize males from their own species. They seem to end up mating with other species, resulting in hybrid offspring that sport duller hues. Not only could hybridization take a toll on species diversity, Brown says, but the mismatched mates may produce offspring that can’t compete or reproduce, harming populations.Polluted water may obscure other crucial signals. Brown, for example, has found in the lab that chemical pollutants appear to mask important molecules that fish use to sniff out danger. Fish release those molecules in their urine when disturbed; the odors warn other fish that a predator may be nearby. But high levels of nitrogenous pollutants, such as fertilizer runoff in streams, can overpower the warning scents. Brown says detecting the signal becomes “like trying to hear someone in a very crowded room with lots and lots of background noise.”Pollution can also chemically alter a different warning signal, he found: molecules that leak from fish skin when damaged, for example, by a predator’s attack. Freshwater acidification, caused not by rising CO2 levels, but by airborne sulfate and nitrate pollution, may render those molecules unrecognizable. To better understand the possible consequences, Brown and co-author Chris Elvidge, now of Carleton University in Ottawa, used meter-long threads to tether baby Atlantic salmon to stream bottoms. Normally, the young fish would respond to the smell of other fishes’ alarm cues by dropping to shelter in the gravel. But when the researchers returned 6 hours later, the fish in more acidic streams, which were less able to detect those cues, were likelier to have vanished, apparently because they didn’t duck from danger. Sometimes a full-bellied trout had taken the place of the young salmon on the end of the thread.Finding refugeResearchers are not only documenting how sensory smog harms fish, but also searching for ways to protect them from it. Some marine reserves, for example, already ban certain activities, such as construction or exploration for oil. But as researchers learn more about aquatic soundscapes, they can imagine other ways of protecting fish from unwanted sound, such as by barring loud motors or industrial activities from key fish spawning grounds during certain seasons.Larger global issues, such as ocean acidification and polluted runoff, could be harder to tackle. Even here, however, “There are rays of hope,” Brown says. For instance, he found that fish can associate a given smell not only with risk, but with a certain habitat or time of day. If a predator hunts only at dawn or dusk, the prey fish may learn to ignore the smell of that predator at midday. In a world where some of their sensory cues are masked or changed, fish may find new cues and learn new rules to live by.Fish may also be able to cope with some interference because they have multiple ways of sensing the world. For example, fish have lateral lines, a set of organs on the outside of the body that sense pressure and currents and help fish orient themselves. Some species can also sense magnetic fields. Sharks and their relatives can detect electricity. “In some cases, if one sense is blocked or unusable, then fish will just switch to another one,” Kelley says. “That makes them very resilient in that context.”The rapid pace of environmental change, however, is testing the sensory resilience of fish as never before. The outcome of rising sensory smog “could be not as bad as we’re anticipating,” Dixson says. “Or it could be 1000 times worse.” The studies face both logistical and conceptual challenges. Observing the behavior of fish in the vast sea is nearly impossible, but a laboratory aquarium is a far cry from their natural environment. And we can’t know exactly what seeing, smelling, or hearing as a fish is like. But by drawing on tools as elaborate as simulated underwater environments and as simple as bits of thread tethering baby fish to stream bottoms, researchers are gaining a better understanding of how fish use their senses—as well as the consequences of disrupting them.Driving the work is the concern that humans are creating a pervasive threat to the fish stocks that provide food and livelihoods for millions of people: a kind of sensory smog. Combating causes such as pollution and acidification is a staggering challenge, the scientists admit. But the stakes are high. “The knock-on implications are huge,” says Jennifer Kelley, a behavioral ecologist at the University of Western Australia in Perth. When fish with compromised senses settle in the wrong homes or fail to recognize predators, the results could ripple outward “to how individuals interact and how communities operate, and the whole ecology of the system altering.”Acid testAn 11-day-old clownfish, pale orange and about as long as a grain of rice, searches for a place to settle down on a reef. Its keen sense of smell helps it both navigate to a safe home and steer away from the mouths of predators.In the wild, clownfish inhabit living coral reefs. But in behavioral ecologist Danielle Dixson’s laboratory at the University of Delaware in Lewes, the habitats beckoning the fish are made mostly of wires. Dixson will use the experimental setup to study how ocean acidification could alter how fish perceive and respond to their world.The laboratory—a converted garage with black bags taped over the windows to block bright light—holds two bays of fish tanks. A network of densely draped cables connects sensors in the aquariums to a black box on the wall, which researchers call “the brain.” It helps them monitor and control water temperatures and acidity levels in each tank.In some tanks, Dixson will keep clownfish and other species in seawater with the acidity levels found now in the ocean. In other tanks, the water will be more acidic, to mimic the ocean chemistry that’s forecast for later this century if humans do not curb CO2 emissions. In both cases, conditions fluctuate during the day, as on a real reef. The researchers will look at how pH levels affect the way fish behave, interact, and respond to olfactory cues. V. Altounian/Science Murky waters can complicate stickleback mating. V. Altounian/Science Cod use sound to communicate, but noisier seas are interfering with their conversations.last_img read more

Sudans military scraps deal with protest groups calls for elections within 9

first_img P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies Trouser-wearing women fined $200 in Sudan Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 Related News More Explained The main protest organizers, the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), accused the TMC of perpetrating “a massacre” as it broke up the camp, a charge denied by the council.TMC spokesman Lieutenant General Shams El Din Kabbashi said security forces were pursuing “unruly elements” who had fled to the protest site and caused chaos.The camp had become the focal point of pressure on the country’s military rulers to hand over power to civilians.Sudan has been rocked by unrest since December, when anger over rising bread prices and cash shortages broke into sustained protests that culminated in the armed forces moving to oust Bashir. Sudan, Transitional military counsel, Shams El Din Kabbashi, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Khartoum, world news, indian express The decision by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) is likely to fuel anger among protest leaders. (File photo)Sudan’s ruling military council said on Tuesday it was canceling all agreements with the main opposition coalition and called for elections within nine months, following the worst violence since President Omar al-Bashir was ousted in April. By Reuters |Khartoum (sudan) | Published: June 4, 2019 12:07:46 pm Advertising But talks between a coalition of protesters and opposition parties have ground to a halt amid deep differences over who will lead a transition to democracy that both sides had agreed will last for three years.In a televised address in the early hours of Tuesday morning, TMC leader Lieutenant General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan said that the opposition coalition was equally responsible for the delay in coming to a final agreement.The TMC had decided to cancel all agreements with the protest groups and call for elections within nine months, which he said will be organized under regional and international supervision.“Gaining legitimacy and a mandate does not come but through the ballot box,” Burhan said. The decision by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) is likely to fuel anger among protest leaders who have demanded preparations for elections during a longer transitional period led by a civilian administration.The TMC had been under both domestic and international pressure to hand over power to civilians.At least 35 people were killed when security forces stormed a protest camp outside the Defense Ministry in central Khartoum on Monday amid heavy gunfire, according to a group of doctors linked to the opposition. The group had earlier said that at least 116 people were wounded.center_img Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off Taking stock of monsoon rain Advertising Advertising Best Of Express Washington lifted a 20-year trade embargo against Sudan in 2017 and was in discussions to remove it from the sponsor of terrorism list when the military stepped in on April 11 to depose Bashir, who ruled Sudan for 30 years. He also announced that a government would immediately be formed to run the country until elections are held.The protest organizers have not officially responded to Burhan’s decision. They had earlier condemned the violence and vowed to escalate protests to force the military rulers to hand over power to civilians.Burhan said he regretted the violence that accompanied what he described as “an operation to clean the Nile Street” and said that the violence will be investigated.The operation drew condemnation from Europe, the United States and the African Union.Sudan has been on a U.S. list of states that sponsor terrorism since 1993 that denies the country access to financial markets and strangles its economy. UN urges ceasefire as Sudan-rebel peace talks begin Post Comment(s)last_img read more