This post was written by Kimberly Quinn, University of Florida M.Ed./Ed.S. Candidate, 1LT Florida Army National Guard. She is a member of the MFLN Family Development (FD) team which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. [Flickr, Portfolio of Susanna Avery-Lynch by Susanna Avery-Lych, CC BY-ND 2.0] Retrieved on September 17, 2015In previous posts we’ve discussed the benefits of father involvement for both fathers and their children. This week’s featured resource is the National Fatherhood Initiative website which aims to equip fathers with education and resources needed to engage in their children’s’ lives. The website includes information specific to military fathers making it a resource that professionals working with military families can use to equip families at any point in their military life cycle. In its aim to:“…improve well-being of children by increasing the proportion of children growing up with involved, responsible, and committed fathers…” The National Fatherhood Initiative website houses Quality Resources, Professional Technical Assistance, and Trainings and Workshops for military personnel as well as resources for professionals serving them. Topics in the training program range from becoming a new father to preparing for deployment with young children. In 2010, the National Fatherhood Initiative equipped over 40 National Guard sites with fatherhood resources. They have also distributed pamphlets and information kiosks to active installations across the country.
By Carol ChurchThe unconditional love, companionship, acceptance, and emotional support our animal friends have to offer can be especially valuable to members of the military and their loved ones. Children missing an absent parent may find comfort in a beloved dog or cat. After moving to yet another new location, a pet makes a new area feel like home, and can even make it easier to make friends. And when one member of a couple is deployed, the spouse remaining at home may rely on the pet as companion, and even as protection.Aleksey Mnogosmyslov /PhotospinHowever, as pet owners know, owning a pet can also be expensive! According to Experian, the average annual cost of owning a cat or dog is about $600-700 a year. (The first year of ownership is significantly more expensive due to the cost of set-up.) Over its lifetime, a cat or dog could run you anywhere from about $6,000-$12,000, or possibly more.Of course, this figure is only a rough average. Depending on the size, health, and lifestyle of the pet, as well as a family’s lifestyle and choices, costs may be higher or lower. For instance, some families spend thousands on cancer treatment or ACL replacement for a failing canine or feline friend, while others will be hard pressed to afford a monthly medication. In 2011, the U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook reported that about half of dog owners and about 20% of cat owners do not take their pets to a vet at all in a given year. Of those, about 20-30% say this is because the cost is too high.What’s more, significant extra costs can also accrue to service members who own pets. Unfortunately, shelters near bases often report high rates of pet relinquishment. Though logistics are often the culprit here, finances can play a role as well, particularly when it comes to moving. Don’t forget about how pet ownership limits options when renting a home—many places will not rent to pet owners at all, or only with a sizable deposit, which may be lost if the pet does damage to the home or apartment.To be both financially responsible and a responsible pet owner, military families need to ask themselves these questions:Do we have a realistic sense of the cost of pet ownership? Can we afford this cost?Have we considered what we will do with this pet if we must PCS? What if the location is very distant or out of the continental US? What if we are flying but the pet cannot fly due to time of year (extreme temps can preclude flying?)Who will be the primary caretaker of this pet? If it is the service member, are other family members prepared to take his or her place in the event of deployment?Are we investing in pet insurance or setting aside funds for pet-related emergencies?How do we feel about the reality that pet ownership may limit our options when renting and buying?Do we know what we will and will not spend the money for when it comes to “heroic measures” for a pet in need?Special Considerations for Service membersPCSing may require shipping a pet by air and/or boarding one while trying to find a new housing. A special kennel is required, as is a certificate from a vet, and some destinations charge fees or require quarantine. Flying with a pet can be relatively reasonable (about $150-$200 for some destinations within the US) or significantly more costly (overseas flights may be several thousand dollars). Various specialized companies perform this service and some do offer military discounts.Depending on the situation, service members may also need to find somewhere to house their pet before their new home is ready to occupy. Pet boarding can easily run into the hundreds of dollars. Pet-friendly lodging may be a possibility, as many hotels near bases know that families need this service. Petswelcome offers an easy way to search for hotels open to animals.If a service member absolutely cannot afford the costs of PCSing with pets, there is help. Through Operation Military Pets, SPCA International offers financial assistance to families in need whose cost to ship their pets exceeds $400 domestic and more than $500 internationally. There are various regulations involved in this program.Active Deployment and PetsWhile not technically a financial issue in most cases, deployment can become a problem for pet owners without family to care for the pet in their absence. Fortunately, various nonprofits have sprung up to assist with this, offering pet “foster parents” who will care for a service member’s animal free of charge while he or she is deployed. Some reliable options include:Dogs on DeploymentGuardian Angels for Soldier’s PetPACT for Animals Military Foster ProgramIn the next installment, we’ll cover some simple ways that families with pets can save money on their care over the years.
The TiltA camera tilt is similar to a pan, but instead of turning left or right, it moves up or down. The physical camera stays in the same stationary place, but the field of view, like the pan, changes. Here’s a YouTube example of a proper tilt by Frank Healz. The Tracking ShotImage via Wikipedia.A tracking shot — or dolly shot — involves moving a camera forward, backward, left, or right (or any combination thereof) in real space. Often, this requires a dolly track to keep the camera steady. Usually, this movement covers short, controlled distances; however, in cinema, it’s often combined with pans, tilts, pedestals, and zooms — as you can see in the example below.These are just the basic camera movements, if you’re interested in learning more about some more advanced moves and general filmmaking knowledge, check out some of these resources.6 Affordable Ways to Capture Great Dolly ShotsTraditional Camera Moves Made Easy With DJI DronesAchieving a Jib Shot with a Slide The ZoomImage via PetaPixel.A zoom is a camera move that does not require any camera “movement” at all — so to speak. A zoom involves a camera increasing or decreasing its focal length to magnify an image. Not all camera lenses are capable of this, but here’s a breakdown of how a zoom lens works. For our purposes, zooming in or out can change the composition, scene, or even the story. Which is your favorite camera movement? Let us know in the comments. The CraneImage via Hague Camera Supports.Also called a pedestal or jib shot, this technique requires moving the actual camera body up or down in space. The term jib comes from the arm used in a camera craning device. For longer crane movements, you need longer and longer jibs (as you can see in the photo above). Here’s an example of a famous crane shot. These camera movements revolutionized the art of filmmaking.Cover image via Vintage Everyday.While it may be something most filmmakers take for granted, the concept of camera movement is really the apex of centuries of image-capturing technology. Movement, whether it is from a stationary location or freely across three-dimensional space, is a powerful cinematic technique. So, as a filmmaker or video producer, it’s important for you to understand what movement is and how it works.Let’s explore the five most powerful camera movements in cinema history.The PanLet’s start with the basics. One of the first camera moves to appear in cinema was perhaps the simplest. If your camera is on a tripod, moving the camera head to the left or to the right is called a “pan.” You can see an example of it in the 1903 film The Great Train Robbery below.
From Jurassic Park to Dietland, the films that producer Bonnie Curtis has worked on have yielded valuable lessons. We talk about what she’s learned.Cover image via AMC.Not every small-town Texas girl can go to Hollywood and make it big, but producer Bonnie Curtis shows us that with curiosity and tenacity, and by surrounding yourself with people you love, your odds can get a whole lot better.Bonnie Curtis.PremiumBeat: Everyone has a unique origin story, so I understand you can’t offer a step-by-step guide on how to be successful in Hollywood, but huge people in this industry such as Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy, and Glenn Close have put their trust and faith in you. Can you identify any qualities you have or actions you took that were valued and rewarded?Bonnie Curtis: I think a strong work ethic and personal confidence . . . and a bit of common sense . . . helped me immensely. Always doing something instead of waiting to be told to do it . . . not being afraid to be wrong. Most of the work “moments” in my life that I credit with being turning points for me were usually because of luck, a decision someone else made . . . and just being there in that moment, working hard. And attitude — that’s a biggie. Tackling the sublime to the ridiculous with a smile on one’s face.Jurassic Park (image via Universal Pictures).PB: You’ve been involved in huge studio productions (Schindler’s List, Minority Report, Jurassic Park) and intimate, independent films (Albert Nobbs, The Chumscrubber). How does the role of producer change when the scope of the production is different?BC: The role of the producer is a bit different on every project . . . but the basic elements remain the same whether the budget is large or small. Script, budget, schedule . . . casting . . . crewing. On a studio project, there is a political element that independent film more often does not experience. You have to spend quite a bit of your time communicating with the Studio about every element of your film on a studio production. And there is an approval process tied to that. Independent film is exactly that — independent of those approvals. With independent film, the stress comes from the financing. It is a challenge particularly in the world of Netflix, to get the equity to make an independent film.To The Bone (image via Netflix).PB: The films you worked on with Spielberg were of one sensibility, but the projects you’ve independently produced have had very different subject matter and tone. What do you currently look for in a project when you are considering signing on to produce? Is it the material, the attachments, the logistics, or a combination of elements?BC: Absolutely varies from project to project . . . but I do always like to find my way in. Sometimes it’s the director. Sometimes it’s the actor. Sometimes it’s the subject matter. And currently it’s the franchise — the opportunity to bring Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton) back to the big screen in a franchise that was formative to me as a young filmgoer — that made this current Terminator film we are doing worthwhile. We also love the company that is co-financing the endeavor — Skydance Media. Passionate and very good people who love movies.PB: In life, we form relationships that feed our soul — I’ve noticed that your creative soul is also led by meaningful relationships. You’ve partnered with producer Julie Lynn, actor Glenn Close, and currently with Marti Noxon on the Netflix film To the Bone and AMC’s Dietland. How important is building a creative partnership, and why do you think you formed bonds with these particular artists?BC: I love artists. And I love artists who are trying to say something. I also love good people. And those three you have listed above are three of the most incredible human beings I have ever met. They have their feet on the ground. They love their children. They love art. They love walking around a city and discovering things. And they love me . . . that helps too!The Chumscrubber (image via Go Fish Pictures).PB: Arie Posen was a first-time feature director when you worked with him. From a producer’s perspective, what gave you the confidence to take a chance on him, and what did you see during the two films you produced of his in terms of a learning curve that other first-time directors should adopt? Any newbie mistakes that are common?BC: I loved Arie’s script, The Chumscrubber. And I loved his short film “Over My Dead Body.” Arie had something to say, and he knew how to move the camera. He is also a cinephile . . . he considers the art of making film an art. He loves seeing a perfect movie. And his work ethic is staggering. I love working with Arie. We have a TV show we are about to sell . . . can’t wait. As for mistakes — there are no mistakes. Making a film is messy . . . and you learn a lot in hindsight. But the the messy collaboration is what makes the art form incredibly unique. “Mistakes” can become the most beautiful part if you lean into them and don’t fight them.Dietland (image via AMC).PB: Dietland incorporates animation sequences, and clearly there is a colorful visual esthetic — how much influence as a producer do you have with the choices made by the director and/or DP?BC: I was deeply involved with Marti on the animation and visual effects aspect of Dietland. Simply because I have quite a bit of experience in this area. So I raised my hand. Marti’s brain is an absolute wonderland . . . and getting what she was seeing out of her head and onto the screen — that was our task. Our visual effects supervisor, Ivy Agregan, and the animation team at Six Point Harness made all our dreams come true. Once we got in a rhythm, it just rolled and rolled and rolled, and Marti got to play and play and play. I love the animation in the series.As for the looks outside of that animation . . . I left that to Marti and our amazing DP Alison Kelly. We all loved the footage at every turn . . . so there was no need to step in at any point.The Face of Love (image via IFC Films).PB: You filmed The Face of Love and To the Bone with the ARRI Alexa. Was that a filmmaker or producer choice, and how have these new cameras made the process easier both financially and artistically?BC: The Alexa was a game changer . . . but that seems like centuries ago now! Digital is all we’ve been shooting on for many, many movies. It would be fun to make one on film again. It makes zero difference to me . . . you just have to decide in enough time to plan properly. Budget properly. It’s all in the planning — the war is won in prep.Albert Nobbs (image via Lionsgate).PB: When a young filmmaker moves to L.A., they often are going to have to get a “day job” to pay the bills while they try to set up their own creative projects. What kind of job would you advise that would help them grow both creatively and professionally?BC: I always tell folks to just get their foot in the door somewhere. Take a temp job answering phones. My take on it is the real jobs in this business happen at a moment’s notice, and if you are on-site, you will more than likely get the gig. Do anything . . . get people’s lunch, pick up their laundry . . . and add your own flare to that endeavor . . . make it the best dang lunch they have ever had . . . make them remember you.Looking or more industry interviews? Check these out.Interview: Keeping Score with Film and Television Composer Nathan BarrInterview: The Film Collaborative on Filmmaking Rights and DistributionInterview: The Editor of “This is America” on Building the Iconic VideoSet Your Film Right: On Location with Robert FoulkesAn Interview with Andrew Shulkind, DP of Netflix Original film The Ritual
Get the Free eBook! Want to master cold calling? Download my free eBook! Many would have you believe that cold calling is dead, but the successful have no fear of the phone; they use it to outproduce their competitors. Download Now People can tell whether or not they have your full attention. You may think that you can fake it, but you can’t. You may believe that because you are on the telephone, invisible to the person with whom you’re speaking, that they won’t know that your mind is really somewhere else. But they know.Your responses betray you.I know we live in a world of distraction, but this makes your full undivided attention a gift. Giving that gift is proof positive that you care about the other person and what they’re saying.I know that it’s difficult to focus when there is so much going on around you. But really listening to someone is also a gift. The person you are speaking with wants to be heard–just like you want to be heard. The ability to listen can define and differentiate you in a world full of people who can’t–or won’t.I know you’re busy. If you want to reclaim your time, then focus on being effective in the moment, not distracted. Effectiveness with other human beings is accomplished not through efficiency, but through caring. And giving someone your full attention and focus is an exceptional gift of caring in the world that is too busy and too distracted to care.May I have your attention please?
Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Now Podcast: Play in new window | Download (16.2MB)Subscribe: Apple Podcasts | Android | Email | Google Podcasts | RSSIf you haven’t read my column on Forbes.com titled A Red Ocean Strategy. My experience in sales is only in the Red Ocean, where there was ferocious competition and more competitors than the market needed. The competitive strategy that allows you to displace your competitors is in my new book, Eat Their Lunch (which you can order on Amazon.com now).Sales Accelerator – The best, most complete, B2B sales training.The B2B Sales Toolkit – the only Planner for B2B salespeople.OutBound Conference 2019 – If a sales conference was a rock show.
After a largely unspectacular performance in the recently concluded civic polls in Maharashtra, Asaduddin Owaisi, president of the All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (AIMIM) on Monday dissolved his party’s State core committee.In a letter to the core committee members of his party in Maharashtra, Mr. Owaisi lauded their efforts which produced decent gains for the AIMIM in the civic polls. Party sources said the ostensible reason behind the dissolution was that the core committee had been set-up for the express purpose of the civic polls only.However, despite the party making humble, though steady inroads in civic corporations, the real reason behind the dissolution appears to be the party’s failure to live up to the high expectations, namely in the Pune, Solapur and Mumbai civic polls.At the same time, the party is facing internal discord. In Latur, disgruntled AIMIM activists burnt effigies of the Owaisi brothers and AIMIM legislator Imtiaz Jaleel. In Pune, AIMIM leader Zuber Shaikh accused Mr. Jaleel of taking bribes during the ticket allocation. Mr. Shaikh, who headed the party’s Pune unit, was dismissed from the party. The AIMIM, which cornered the Congress’s and NCP’s minority votes in the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) election, polled nearly 74, 000 votes (1.26 % of the total vote share) despite winning only one seat. The party contested on only 21 seats in the PMC polls. The AIMIM secured a total 26 seats in elections to 10 civic bodies across the State.
BJP government’s policy of “saffron appeasement” was impacting law and order in the state, BSP president Mayawati said on Saturday while demanding that stern action should be taken against those behind the caste clashes in Saharanpur on Friday.“Murder, violence and not abiding by law and order has become a common sight in the name of saffron appeasement of the BJP government which has also caused fear and terror among the people,” Mayawati said in a party release a day after the Saharanpur violence in which one person was killed and at least 15 injured.Expressing concern over the incident, she asked the government to immediately work towards restoring peace and order. The BSP chief also asked the BJP government to shun saffron appeasement, be just and keep up their word. “It has become a sort of fashion to set new traditions by taking out processions without permission and create violence … the BJP government has totally failed to control such elements,’ she said.“After communal incidents, casteist clashes have rocked the state and this proves that better law and order and crime control is not something that BJP can manage,” Mayawati said.The Saharanpur clashes, that saw brickbats and arson, broke out following a dispute over loud music being played during a procession being taken out by 20-25 youths belonging to the upper caste Thakur community who were going to take part in a function to garland a statue of Rajput warrior king Maharana Pratap. Dalit locals objected to the loud music in the procession that was going from Shabbirpur village to Simlana village.
Farmers in the entire country are in distress because of the anti-farming policies of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government at Centre, and in all States where it is in power, said Hardik Patel, Gujarat’s Patidar quota agitation leader, who was recently prevented by the Madhya Pradesh police from visiting Mandsaur, where farmers’ agitation turned violent.“I just wanted to meet the families of those killed because four of the five persons killed were from the Patidar community,” he said, adding, “This is the most anti-farmers government at Centre in the country.”According to him, farmers remain the most negligent segment in any BJP ruled state because the party leadership is in the hands of a few businessmen and industrial groups, whose empires flourish at the cost of farmers landless people.“In Gujarat, we are organising farmers and poor people at village level, creating awareness about how the government is neglecting their demands and issues,” he said.Asked about whether debt of farmers should be waived off, Mr Patel, who spearheads a state wide mass agitation to seek quota for Patidars in Gujarat, said there was nothing wrong in waiving off loans of farmers.“If the government can waive off huge loans taken by industrialists and businessmen, then why it cannot do the same for farmers? What is wrong in it,” Mr Patel asked, adding “the loans taken by farmers from nationalised banks and also from cooperative credit societies should be waived off.”“The real tragedy is that the farmers are neglected by the governments and exploited by the traders, who lower the procurement prices the moment farmers harvest their crops,” he said, slamming the extant system of procurement prices of agriculture commodities.
The Union Budget 2018-2019 will be remembered as the last full Budget in the run-up to the 2019 Lok Sabha elections. To help decode this Budget and what it means, The Hindu Business Line and the SHASTRA Deemed University will be hosting a ‘Post Budget Talk’ powered by FICCI.Union Minister for Railways and Coal Piyush Goyal, the chief guest, will be charting the vision of the government on ambitious schemes announced in the Budget, such as Ayushman Bharat, the world’s largest universal health insurance scheme.Shaktikanta Das, Member, 15th Finance Commission and India’s G20 Sherpa, will make a keynote address on important takeaways from the Budget.A panel discussion on the Budget will be moderated by R. Srinivasan, Editor, BusinessLine. Principal Economic Advisor, Ministry of Finance, Sanjeev Sanyal; Past President of FICCI and current Executive Chairman of the Great Eastern Energy Corporation Limited Y.K. Modi; and FICCI Secretary General Sanjaya Baru will answer the tricky question of how the government will balance the fiscal in the run-up to an election year.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) on Saturday named Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) MLA Kuldeep Singh Sengar’s brother in the chargesheet in connection with the death of the father of the minor gang-rape victim of Unnao.The CBI filed the chargesheet against five accused, including the Bangermau MLA’s brother Atul Singh Sengar. The other accused in the death case of the minor’s father are Vineet Mishra, Birendra Singh alias Bauwa, Ram Sharan Singh alias Sonu and Shashi Pratap Singh, all residents of Sarai Thok Makhi in Unnao district. The face charges of murder and criminal intimidation, among others.The FIR has invoked Sections 302, 147, 148, 149, 323, 504 and 506 of the Indian Penal Code.The father of the minor rape victim died in April while in judicial custody, allegedly of injuries suffered during an assault by the MLA’s brother and his aides. The MLA is an accused in the gang-rape case and is currently in jail.According to the complaint by the victim’s wife, on April 3, when her husband had come down from Delhi to attend court in Unnao in connection with his daughter’s rape case, the MLA’s brother and his aides abused him and brutally assaulted him after rounding him up in front of their house. The minor victim’s father sustained serious injuries in the assault and died in judicial custody after he was picked up by the police in connection with an FIR on possession of illegal arms lodged by the MLA’s brother.After the post-mortem, a three-member panel of doctors concluded that prima facie the minor’s father had died due to “shock and septicemia” caused by “peritonitis and ascending colon perforation.”The body had 14 ante-mortem injury marks, most of them abrasions, contusions and blunt-type injuries. The CBI said it was also probing the MLA’s links to the death.
CRPF Assistant Sub-Inspector (ASI) Ajit Kumar spent the prime of his life serving the country, including in terror-affected Kashmir Valley but when the 45-year-old was found dead under ‘suspicious’ circumstances near railway tracks in Karnal, he was cremated as an ‘unidentified’ person, due to ‘official apathy’. On July 11 evening, Kumar left his native Dehrat village in Himachal Pradesh’s Hamirpur district to take a train for Delhi. He was scheduled to meet his paramilitary force colleague at New Delhi from where they were to move to Assam to join duty after transfer from Srinagar, Kumar’s family members said. The family said they lost touch with Kumar as soon as he left for the national Capital. After making efforts for a few hours, they approached the GRP post at Nangal Dam railway station, from where he had boarded the train, on July 12 and lodged a report about his ‘mysterious disappearance’.Their fears came true when they learnt three days later that Kumar was found dead near rail tracks and cremated as an ‘unidentified person’. “We were shocked to know that Kumar was cremated on July 15 by the GRP Karnal after declaring the body as unclaimed, whereas we had lodged a missing report on the night of July 12, three days before his cremation, ” a relative Rajeev Sharma said.He alleged that Kumar’s wife Sunita Devi and their three unmarried daughters could not see his face one last time due to the GRP’s negligent attitude. Karnal GRP officials, however, defended their action. “As per the set rules, we kept the body for identification for 72 hours after recovering it from near tracks about two kms from the Karnal railway station on July 12 at 2.30 a.m. We released the photos in local media. No identity card or mobile phone was found from the clothes or near the body,” Karnal GRP police station SHO Inspector Inderjeet Singh said.Kumar’s family members said that they cannot understand the logic of releasing the body’s pictures in local papers when the person was most likely a traveller and not from that area. “What is the use of giving the photo in local media of the body of a person who was travelling in a train passing through that area,” Mr. Sharma asked. The authorities were merely completing formalities, the family alleged. “Had they been serious in identifying the body, the Karnal GRP officials could have contacted other railway stations,” added Mr. Sharma. He also said whether the police tried to investigate the cause of death. Kumar might have been pushed out of the running train by some one, Mr. Sharma added. Inspector Inderjeet Singh, however, ruled out the possibility of murder.
Coordinators of the Maratha Kranti Morcha have decided to not hold future demonstrations on roads. They will instead resort to peaceful sit-ins outside houses of MPs and MLAs. At a meeting held in Parli of Beed district on Thursday, they demanded that Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis announce reservation to the Maratha community by August 7 and the government dissolve the cabinet sub-committee headed by Revenue Minister Chandrakant Patil.“If the government fails to do these, the Morcha will resume its State-wide agitation from August 9,” Abasaheb Patil, one of the coordinators, said.The coordinators claimed that none of the Maratha quota agitators were involved in the violence that erupted at various places during the agitation. “Action should be taken against those responsible for the clashes,” Mr. Patil said.The members hinted that Parli will henceforth be the decision-making centre of the protest. “We will form a separate committee to hold parleys with the government,” Ramesh Kere-Patil, another coordinator, said. However, Morcha coordinators in other districts are not pleased with the meeting in Beed, and accuse Mr. Patil and other leaders of trying to hog the limelight by making Parli the future nerve centre.“The prominent members in the Parli meet like Mr. Abasaheb Patil belong to the Chhava Sanghatana, a minor Maratha outfit. By holding an impromptu press meet without consulting coordinators in other districts, they are trying to monopolise the movement. But, the protest is beyond any single outfit’s control,” Shantaram Kunjir, a coordinator in Pune, told The Hindu.In a parallel development, the Pune Rural Police arrested 18 persons, including three minors, for arson, and damage to public property during the clashes in Chakan. The police have also identified nearly 100 people who were part of groups indulged in vandalism.
Stating that there is no government in existence in Goa and the democracy requires a stable government led by the Chief Minister, Congress in Goa on Monday urged Governor Mrdiula Sinha to dismiss the BJP-led State government. Addressing a press conference at the Congress House in the city, Congress chief spokesperson and former Union Law Minister Ramakant Khalap said that the present situation in Goa with several Ministers led by the Chief Minister away taking medical treatment, there was a constitutional deadlock.Mr. Khalap said the failure of the constitutional machinery leads to only one thing — dismissal of the government, taking over of the government, President’s rule. When pressed further and asked if Congress would call for a President’s rule to be imposed, Mr. Khalap said that it was the last resort, and quipped, “We will cross the bridge when it comes.” Calling the present situation in the State a “failure of Constitutional machinery,” Mr. Khalap, in reply to a question also said that once this government is dismissed, the democratic process will come into play and the Congress as the largest party in the State legislature will not lack in responding to the situation.Earlier, Mr. Khalap said, “Let the Chief Minister who is away in U.S. for treatment atleast nominate a Deputy Chief Minister or Minister in-charge as over 80% of the State budget is concentrated in the hands of unwell Chief Minister and Ministers. If that is absent, we request and we demand the Governor must withdraw her pleasure in this Council of Ministers and dismiss the government straightaway,” said Mr. Khalap. “While we all have been and continue to pray for fitness and good health of all the Ministers, including the Chief Minister, Congress cannot sit idle and watch the helplessness of the people of Goa,” remarked Goa Congress general secretary and spokesperson Yatish Naik, adding, “The adverse impact of the absence of these Ministers and the various issues which have been plaguing the State for the last ten months and which need to be taken care of.”Mr. Khalap said that on Monday they have sent a e-mail to the Governor requesting for an immediate appointment with her so that “once again we can apprise her of the prevailing situation and try and prevail upon her to act as per the mandate of the Constitution of India.” “The Constitution prescribes that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the helm to aid and advise the Governor. This is the mandate. We can understand the temporary absence of the Chief Minister. Invariably, if it is more than 24 hours, the powers are given to somebody else. It was at least possible to have a Deputy Chief Minister. It has always been the case that whoever has been unable to function, hands over the power to the second in command. The Chief Minister should have authorised not just one but many more ministers to do the work,” said Mr. Khalap. In the present situation, he wondered who was that who was aiding and advising the Governor of Goa because all work, all executive powers are to be exercised in the name of the Governor. “The question comes, how many times has the Council of Ministers met in the last few months. What is the aid and advise they have tendered to the Governor in this period. Let the Governor come clean on this, if the Goa government does not answer this question,” said Mr. Khalap.
The Indian Army has asked the Pakistan military to take back bodies of two “intruders” from that country who were killed in a gunfight along the Line of Control in Sunderbani sector of Jammu on Sunday, official sources said. Two heavily armed Pakistani intruders and three soldiers were killed Sunday in the gunfight after the Army foiled an infiltration bid along the LoC. The intruders were believed to be members of a Border Action Team (BAT) comprising Pakistan Army jawans and trained militants, an Army officer said on condition of anonymity on Sunday. The sources said the Pakistan Army has been informed through established communication channels to take the bodies of its nationals, who were wearing combat uniform. Army sources said a stern warning has been conveyed to the Pakistan Army to restrain terrorists operating from its soil. The incident on Sunday took place at around 1:20 PM. The sources said five to six Pakistani intruders crossed the LoC and fired on Indian Army patrol in the Sunderbani sector. They said since the talks between DGMOs (Director General of Military Operations) of the two countries on May 29, the Indian Army has been maintaining “utmost restraint” to uphold the ceasefire pact along the LoC despite regular provocative actions from across the border. However, Pakistan Army has been vigorously attempting to send terrorists across the LoC and seven infiltration bids have been foiled by the Indian Army since May 30, in which 23 terrorists have been killed. Reports suggest concentration of a large number of terrorists in launch pads across the border and they are desperate to infiltrate into India before the onset of winter.
Ahead of the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, Marathi television actor Dr. Amol Kolhe, who was Shiv Sena’s star campaigner during the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, joined the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) on Friday.While there is no clarity over the role that Dr. Kolhe would take up in the party, NCP leaders said the right call will be taken in the days to come. Besides Dr. Kolhe, four other State leaders from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) also joined the NCP.Dr. Kolhe said that in times of unrest, the national politics and the energy of the youth requires proper guidance and leadership. “Between 2022 and 2025, India is expected to have the largest number of youth. Yet, the nation is currently witnessing unrest. The guidance and leadership that the national politics and our youth require can only be provided by NCP chief Sharad Pawar, and this is my attempt to be of help to him,” he said.On leaving Shiv Sena for the NCP, Dr. Kolhe said that certain decisions have to be taken according to situations. “Working under the Sena chief and with its workers was nothing short of a pleasure. The direction of national politics is changing, and I thought that if in this process something that comes my way is picked up, I must not hold back,” he said. NCP leaders stated the decision over Dr. Kolhe’s role in the party will be taken in due course. Asked if he will contest Lok Sabha Elections, an NCP leader said that it has not yet been discussed. Meanwhile, the NCP said that they were yet to decide on the list of candidates for the Lok Sabha polls. “We will have a discussion with Mr. Pawar and take a call,” he said. Arvind Chavan, a former BJP MLA from Badnapur in Jalna district, BJP leader from Nandurbar Yash Milind Patil, Kishor Patil from BJP’s Kisan Morcha, and Harshal Yashwant Pawar, form BJP’s Doctor Cell were among those who joined the NCP on Friday.“Accepting the proposal tabled by the BJP back in 2014 was a mistake on my part. They never helped me. I am happy at returning to the NCP,” Mr. Chavan said.
2012 was a rough year around the globe, and not for any of the Planet X/Mayan calendar doomsday reasons people feared. Instead, it was a year of extreme weather: drought and heat waves in the United States; record rainfall in the United Kingdom; unusually heavy rains in Kenya, Somalia, Japan, and Australia; drought in Spain; floods in China. And of course there was Superstorm Sandy.One of the first questions asked in the wake of such an extreme weather event is: “Is this due to climate change?” In recent years, a brand of research called “climate attribution science” has sprouted from this question, examining the impact of extreme events to determine how much—often in fractional terms—is related to human-induced climate change, and how much to natural variability (whether in climate patterns such as the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation, sea-surface temperatures, changes in incoming solar radiation, or a host of other possible factors).In a report published online today in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (PDF), scientists with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tackled this question head-on. The report—the second such annual report—analyzes the findings from about 20 scientific studies of a dozen or so extreme weather events that occurred around the world last year, seeking to parse the relative influence of anthropogenic climate change. The overall message of the report: It varies.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)“About half of the events … reveal compelling evidence that human-caused change was a [contributing] factor,” said NOAA National Climatic Data Center Director Thomas Karl today at a press conference accompanying the release of the report. In addition, noted climate scientist Peter Stott of the U.K. Met Office, these studies show that in many cases, human influence on climate has increased the risks associated with extreme events.Below, some highlights from the report:December 2011: Two days of extreme rainfall deluge New Zealand’s Southern Island, producing landslides in what scientists call a 1-in-500-year-event. Conclusion: Total moisture available for this extreme event was 1% to 5% higher as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. September 2012: Arctic sea ice reaches a record new low of 3.4 million square kilometers. A study examined three different factors: warmer-than-usual surface atmosphere conditions (related to global warming); sea-ice thinning prior to the melting season (also related to global warming); and an August storm that passed over the Arctic, stirring up the ocean, fracturing the sea ice and sending it southward to warmer climes. Conclusion: Global warming was primarily responsible, due equally to the thinning sea ice and warm atmospheric conditions.Summer 2012: Heavy rainfall in eastern Australia. Conclusion: A La Niña episode—long associated with wetter-than-normal conditions in Australia—in 2012 likely accounts for most, but not all, of the heavy rainfall. Sea-surface temperatures north of Australia—driven by global warming—could also play a role, increasing the chances of above-average rainfall by as much as 5% in the future.Superstorm Sandy: Although not among the most powerful windstorms to hit the U.S. East Coast, the storm’s real impact came from the massive storm surge and inundation: It broke 16 historical records for storm-tide levels along the coast. Conclusion: The storm coincided with peak high tide in New York Harbor—but future sea-level rise will exacerbate this inundation, making a Sandy-level event more likely in the future, even if the storm itself is less severe.
A prominent critic of scientific journals that charge subscriptions to read government-funded research results has launched a high-profile protest by posting five copyrighted Science papers on his personal website.“I am taking a stand [on] the accessibility of research carried out by the government,” geneticist Michael Eisen of the University of California, Berkeley, tells ScienceInsider. “But I’m not interested in breaking the law.”Eisen posted the papers without asking permission of the copyright holders, an apparent violation of U.S. law. But it would be up to the authors of the papers, not the journal, to take any legal action against Eisen, copyright lawyers say.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Yesterday, Eisen caused a stir in social media by downloading and then reposting the papers, which appear in today’s issue of Science and describe discoveries about martian geochemistry by NASA’s Curiosity rover. Eisen says he was “astonished” to discover that the papers were behind Science’s paywall, and that NASA should have pushed to make them freely available because many of the authors were government employees. “The research was funded with $2.5 billion of tax money,” Eisen says. “It’s more than just a missed opportunity for NASA. It should be a scandal.”Eisen is no stranger to the fight for making scientific research accessible. He helped launch the open-access publishing movement by co-founding the Public Library of Science (PLOS), which publishes several free journals. Open-access journals give free access to readers and pay their bills by charging scientists a publication fee, while traditional journals charge subscribers or libraries.Eisen and other open-access advocates have also pushed governments to require immediate free access to taxpayer-funded findings, with mixed results. In the United States, for instance, federal science agencies have moved to require researchers and journals to make government-funded papers freely available within a year of publication, although many agencies are still working out the details.Ginger Pinholster, director of the Office of Public Programs for AAAS (the publisher of ScienceInsider), wrote in a statement (see below) that the Curiosity papers were published subject to Science’s usual conditions. They include giving authors or their nonprofit employers several ways to freely share versions of the papers. And the journal gives authors the copyright, and asks “only for a License to Publish.”In essence, that means it is up to the authors, who hold copyright, to decide whether they want to take any action against Eisen. ScienceInsider was unable to reach any of the authors for comment. It is also unclear what penalties Eisen might face if the authors successfully challenged his posting of the papers.Eisen, however, suggests that the Curiosity papers shouldn’t be given copyright protection. Legal experts say that work produced totally by government employees cannot be copyrighted; it is the public’s property. “If all the authors of a paper are NASA employees, then he’s probably right that the work would be public domain,” says David Schulz, a lawyer with Levine Sullivan Koch & Schulz, LLP in Washington, D.C. (who also advises ScienceInsider on legal issues).Papers produced by mixed teams of public and private employees, however, exist in a legal gray area, because the co-authors can own copyright to their work. But Eisen says: “The law should not be subverted just because a non-government author is added to a paper.”Science’s statement:“Science does not request copyright of authors. We ask only for a License to Publish, and we use a particularly generous model that permits authors to share copies with colleagues, post the Accepted Version to their Web sites, use for communication purposes, and more.We also allow the author’s nonprofit employers to post the Accepted Version, and we provide a free “referrer link” that lets visitors to the author’s Web site freely access the paper on the Science site. Whether or not the research team used that benefit in this case, we don’t yet know, but the opportunity exists. (We have today reached out to the research team to encourage the use of the referrer link.)AAAS, as a nonprofit publisher, supports the NIH public access policy, and so we make all content freely available on our site after 12 months, or immediately in the case of papers with significant public health implications, or if required by the author’s funding agency.In this case, a number of the authors of the Curiosity papers were not U.S. government employees, but rather, worked at institutions such as JPL [NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory] and CalTech. The research articles therefore were subject to our License to Publish and were treated in the usual fashion.”
In response to the “devastating outbreak” of Ebola in West Africa, U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis Collins has announced “extraordinary measures to accelerate the pace of vaccine clinical trials.”At a teleconference this morning, Collins and Anthony Fauci, head of NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), described several human studies of different Ebola vaccines that will begin over the next few months. None of these clinical trials will determine whether the vaccines work. Instead, the goal will be to assess whether they are safe and stimulate immune responses. Several Ebola vaccines have been tested in humans but none have moved forward to large-scale efficacy studies.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The first trial will begin next week at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. The vaccine, developed by NIAID’s Vaccine Research Center and GlaxoSmithKline, contains genes for the surface protein from two strains of Ebola virus—including the Zaire one now in West Africa—stitched into an adenovirus that infects chimpanzees. As Fauci explained, the chimp adenovirus does not copy itself but acts as a vector and delivers the Ebola genes to human cells, which then should make proteins that trigger an immune response. The vaccine has shown “very good protection” in monkey tests, Fauci noted.This first study will involve 20 volunteers who will receive the vaccine at two different doses. Fauci says the researchers hope to have initial data available by the end of the year, although the study will monitor the participants for 48 weeks. In October, NIAID will begin tests with a simpler, monovalent version of the same vaccine that only contains a surface protein gene from the Zaire strain of Ebola.Fauci said tests of the monovalent vaccine would soon begin in England, Mali, and Gambia in collaboration with a consortium in the United Kingdom that includes the Wellcome Trust and that country’s Medical Research Council. These tests similarly will only test safety and immune responses. The three studies together will involve 140 people.Mali and Gambia do not currently have any Ebola cases, and Fauci said they were chosen because they had the infrastructure to conduct the studies. The three West African countries hardest hit by the current outbreak—Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone—“would not allow the careful kind of phase I study you want to do,” Fauci said. Nigeria, which also is affected by the current outbreak, is another possible site for phase I vaccine studies, he added.A phase I study with a different vaccine, one that uses vesicular stomatitis virus as the vector to deliver Ebola genes, also will begin this fall, Fauci said. The human tests of that vaccine, developed by Canada’s public health agency, will take place at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.Fauci stressed that these small early studies are designed to make sure these potential vaccines do not cause harm. “I have been fooled enough in my many years of experience in infectious disease and vaccinology that you really can’t predict what you might see,” Fauci said. “The worst thing … is to let something widely out before you’ve even tested a modicum of safety. That would violate scientific principles and, in many respects, even ethical principles.”*The Ebola Files: Given the current Ebola outbreak, unprecedented in terms of number of people killed and rapid geographic spread, Science and Science Translational Medicine have made a collection of research and news articles on the viral disease freely available to researchers and the general public.
Anesthetics may make that tooth surgery bearable, but they are also contributing—at least somewhat—to climate change, a new study reveals. The gases act in much the same way as carbon dioxide (CO2), trapping energy from the sun in the atmosphere and warming the planet. Over the past decade, atmospheric concentrations of the commonly used anesthetics desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane have risen globally to 0.30 parts per trillion (ppt), 0.097 ppt, and 0.13 ppt, respectively, scientists report in Geophysical Research Letters. Although those numbers may not seem like much—especially compared with CO2, which reached concentrations of 400 parts per million in 2014—the higher global warming potential of the anesthetics has some scientists worried. For example, every 1 kilogram of desflurane is equal to 2500 kilograms of CO2. They also tracked concentrations of another anesthetic, halothane—which many countries have phased out because it can damage the liver—and found its concentration had declined since 2000. Although nitrous oxide is also widely used as an anesthetic, the researchers purposefully did not include it in the study because, unlike the other gases, it is used in a variety of settings other than anesthetics, such as the food industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Although no one is suggesting a return to the days of biting on a piece of leather or wood to distract from the pain of surgery, scientists argue that limiting or even eliminating the use of desflurane, the most potent of the three gases studied, would help. Also, the study’s researchers point out, no mandate exists that requires used anesthetic be captured and disposed of, and as a result, almost all of it is released directly into the atmosphere.