In 1974, Yale divinity student Carol J. Adams was living in Cambridge and taking classes at Harvard. One October day, while walking down Oxford Street, she had an epiphany that would change her life. Meat is not just murder, she thought, but an expression of violence against women, an emblem of their oppression.Adams had become a vegetarian a month before and was busy learning how to cook without meat. At the same time, she was reading a lot of feminist literature, and on Oxford Street fell into a reverie on chapter 7 of “Small Changes” by Marge Piercy. (An abused wife flees her husband, and swears off meat at the same time.)For Adams, two worlds — feminism and vegetarianism — suddenly came together, like slot-machine cherries clicking into place.That’s the image of intellectual discovery that Adams uses in one preface to “The Sexual Politics of Meat,” a breakthrough book on feminist-vegetarian theory. Its 20th anniversary edition will be on bookshelves next month, a fact that Adams celebrated in Cambridge Wednesday (April 28) with a lecture at Harvard.Her talk, at the Science Center’s Hall D, was just steps from the locus of her epiphany almost 36 years earlier, an experience, she said later, “that levitated me 10 feet off the ground.”Before that epiphany came an ordinary upbringing in rural New York: horses and ponies, a tomboy phase, and — yes — a picture of Adams as a cheerleader. And there was a girlhood of eating meat.That started to change in 1973, when Adams went home after her first year in graduate school — and someone shot her horse Jimmy. “That evening I bit into a hamburger,” she said of those first hours of grief over her dead horse. “Suddenly I stopped [and thought]: I am eating a dead cow.”Adams now sees that moment in feminist terms, believing that feminists see the same things as everyone else, but differently. “I knew I had to stop eating animals,” she said. Years later, her studies of feminist vegetarians (some of the work done at Radcliffe College) finally matured into the book she had started in 1975 as “The Oedible Complex,” a class paper for Boston College feminist philosopher Mary Daly.When “Sexual Politics” appeared, it was red meat to right-wing commentators, who saw it as the latest example of political correctness. “They loved hating it,” said Adams.Her lecture, which she has delivered at more than 50 colleges, was a nine-point outline of feminist-vegan thought. It was illustrated by dozens of disturbing, madcap, or downright bizarre images that Adams has culled from sympathetic readers — all of them meant to illustrate the connection that Western culture makes between sexual exploitation and meat eating.There were restaurant posters, television commercials, newspaper illustrations, book jackets, magazine spreads, and food ads of every stripe — as long as the feminized pigs, cows, shrimp, and crayfish were seductively edible.There was a naked chicken, legs up and ready for the oven, wearing high heels; fashion models posed in a meat locker, dressed in steaks; a “hamtastic” cartoon pig in a skirt, flashing her bulging shanks; “Littermate of the Year” in PlayBoar magazine, a spoof on you-know-what. (“This little piggy,” one headline read, “likes to get dirty.”)Then there were the T-shirts and bumper stickers meant to underscore a cultural given — that eating meat is for real men. One read, “Eat beef: The West wasn’t won on salad.” The real West was won by killing Indians and usurping treaties, said Adams, who lives in Dallas. “Where there is anxious virility,” she added, “there is meat eating.”Then there is another point, said Adams: “One does not eat meat without the death of an animal.” Behind the jokes, and — to the palette — behind the seasonings, there is a dead cow, pig, chicken, or other animal: what she called “the absent referent” in the consumption of meat.To not admit that, or to not see that, allows for “the moral abandonment” of a being, said Adams. “Meat eaters are happiest when they don’t have to deal with these facts.”In Western culture, both edible animals and attractive women are fragmented into part, Adams suggested. She showed one ad of a man at a table, seasoning a shapely female leg. An Arby’s ad shows a close-up of a woman crossing her arms in front of two bra-like hamburger buns. “We’re about to show you something,” the copy reads, “you’ll really drool over.”Feminism sees the environmental harm in eating meat too, said Adams, who called on “ecofeminist theory” to point out the contribution of meat production to depleted soils, water waste, high fuel consumption, and habitat fragmentation.Worldwide, she said, 33 percent of arable land is devoted to raising meat and the grain it requires; a third of fossil fuel consumption is expended on meat production; and 70 percent of U.S. grain is used to feed animals.Don’t forget the cost of eggs and dairy — “feminized protein” that requires a constant state of lactation (milk) or reproductive efficiency (eggs), said Adams, who is a vegan, a vegetarian who does not eat animal products. “Milk comes from a grieving mother,” she said.Some animal advertising is about what Adams called “suicide” food, that is, animals who sing about (or hint at) their own demise. Think of Charlie the Tuna shilling on TV for canned tuna fish. (“Sorry, Charlie” became an American catchphrase.) Or watch a chorus of hens on “Sesame Street” poke fun at themselves. “Even when I’m down,” goes one line, “I’m still Grade A.”Still, for all the power of the ads, “this slide show is not about advertising,” said Adams. It is about the “consciousness-creating” culture the ads come from, she said.In her 90-minute talk, Adams came to the real point early, by giving her sense of being a feminist vegan. “In my life, I want to do the least harm possible,” she said. “I want to walk lightly on this Earth.” Late in the talk, after dozens of slides that equated eating meat to sexual exploitation, she came around to a counterpoint. “In our culture,” observed a sobered Adams, “we have a hostility to caring.”Some of the 85 people at the lecture showed a little hostility of their own. One complained to Adams that her argument would be strengthened by statistics. “I hate statistics,” she replied, bristling at the male urge to quantify. “I don’t care how many times [a woman-hating ad] is presented. I care that it’s presented.”Another complained that Adams had treated the statistics questioner unfairly. One more argued that “getting it” — that is, understanding a vegetarian’s view — doesn’t mean necessarily agreeing with it.Another questioner asked: Would you oppose eating meat if animals were killed humanely?Said Adams, “There is no ideal way to kill an animal.”Her lecture was co-sponsored by the Ann Radcliffe Trust, the Harvard College Women’s Center, and the Harvard College Vegetarian Society (aka Vegitas).The society’s new president, Avalon Owens ’13, presided over a table of post-lecture vegan snacks, including bread, dark chocolate, popcorn, tortilla chips, hummus, fruit, and carrots. Even Adams’ angry detractors filled their plates.“I’m eating delicious food,” said Owens of vegetarianism’s best argument. “I feel like I’m doing something important.”To learn more about Vegitas.
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Utility Dive:On Sunday, an Arizona federal judge granted a motion to dismiss a lawsuit that sought to force a state water agency to buy coal-fired electricity.In a legal battle that began nearly a year ago, coal producer Peabody Energy, the Hopi Tribe and the labor union United Mine Workers of America tried to use the courts to pressure the Central Arizona Project (CAP) into returning as a potential buyer for the power of the plant in question, the Navajo Generating Station.The 2.3 GW coal plant is in danger of closing at the end of the year after difficulties to find a buyer for the plant’s output. The plaintiffs have until April 19 to file an amended complaint.As another nail in the coffin of the largest coal-fired facility west of the Mississippi, the legislative branch of the Navajo Nation accepted a resolution on March 21 “to move the Navajo Nation beyond coal source revenues and forward to sustainable, renewable energy sources.”A quarter of the share of NGS is owned by the Department of the Interior, although the Navajo Nation, the second largest Native American tribe in the United States, derives a large portion of its budget from plant lease payments and as a source of employment.“Without a market-based transaction supported by the Navajo Nation to operate NGS after 2019, the Department will support decommissioning of the NGS facilities per the terms of the 2017 Extension Lease to minimize the impacts of a NGS closure,” Molly Block, Interior spokesperson, told Utility Dive via email.More: Federal judge blocks potential path to viability for 2.3 GW Navajo coal plant Interior says it supports closure of Navajo Generating Station
For all the Latest Sports News News, Football News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps. London: Liverpool stayed hot on the heels of Manchester City after a bizarre late winner against Everton as Arsenal issued a powerful statement of intent on the Premier League derby day. Jurgen Klopp’s unbeaten side looked set to drop a precious two points in their dogged pursuit of City but they benefited from a bizarre error from Everton goalkeeper Jordan Pickford to win 1-0 and continue their Anfield hex over their city rivals on Sunday. Unai Emery’s Arsenal are now 19 matches unbeaten in all competitions after their thrilling 4-2 victory against Tottenham at the Emirates lifted them to fourth, above fierce rivals Spurs on goal difference.Read More |Manchester City extend lead, Manchester United held to a draw Chelsea recovered from the disappointment of losing their first match of the Premier League season to Spurs last week to beat Fulham 2-0 and climb to third in the table. Liverpool started the Merseyside derby determined to salvage some pride after their midweek defeat to Paris Saint-Germain left their Champions League hopes in the balance.Read More | Real Madrid beat Valencia, close gap on Barcelona in La LigaThere were chances for both teams in an entertaining encounter but the match appeared to be heading for a goalless stalemate as the seconds ticked away. But then out of nowhere, England’s Pickford made a terrible error. He misjudged a looping, miskicked shot from Virgil Van Dijk, appearing to push the ball upwards before it bounced on top of the bar and into the path of substitute Divock Origi.Read More |Barcelona go on top of La Liga with comfortable win over VillarealThe Belgium forward had the simple task of heading into the empty net to spark scenes of ecstasy at Anfield, with Klopp racing onto the pitch to celebrate. Pickford apologised for his blunder but gave a different version of events. “The ball spun and as I tried to flick it over, my hand hit the bar,” he said. “I think it is the Everton luck when we come to Anfield.” Klopp apologised on TV for his celebrations and also explained he had said sorry to his opposite number Marco Silva after the win, which closes the gap to City to just two points. “What can I say about it? I didn’t want to run,” said Klopp. “It was not in my plan. I didn’t want to run to Ali (goalkeeper Alisson), I couldn’t stop obviously. Not cool, but it happened.” Silva disputed Klopp’s version of events, however. “He didn’t apologise to me,” he said. “To be honest, I didn’t see so I don’t know what he did and how he did it.” Arsenal gutsEarlier, Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang’s penalty gave Arsenal an early lead in the north London derby before Eric Dier’s header and a Harry Kane spot-kick handed Tottenham the lead at half-time at the Emirates Stadium. But Aubameyang’s superb long-range equaliser sparked a second half surge from the Gunners. Alexandre Lacazette came off the bench to put Arsenal ahead and Lucas Torreira sealed the points with his first goal for the club. Capping a miserable day for Jan Vertonghen, the Tottenham defender was sent off in the closing stages after earlier giving away Arsenal’s penalty. “It is a very big match for our confidence. Now we have to continue our process,” Emery said. “It is a very big victory. We give this to our supporters because it’s a very special match against Tottenham.” Emery has injected life into an Arsenal side that had stagnated in the final years of Arsene Wenger’s reign but losses to Manchester City and Chelsea and a draw with Liverpool had raised questions about the team’s ability to compete with their biggest rivals. In the first match of the day, a nervy Chelsea scored early through Pedro and late through Ruben Loftus-Cheek to see off London neighbours Fulham. Sarri said he could see tension in his players at Stamford Bridge, even though last week’s defeat at Spurs was their first loss in the league this season. On Saturday, Manchester United dropped points in a 2-2 draw against struggling Southampton and are now eight points off fourth place, still with a negative goal difference. Jose Mourinho’s United host Arsenal on Wednesday knowing they cannot afford to lose as their chances of qualifying for next season’s Champions League look increasingly remote. City beat Bournemouth 3-1 to move to record their 12th win in 14 matches, with 38 points in the bag already and a goal difference of +37.
Casado says “I am absolutely confident that we will have magnificent games in Tokyo next summer, with the help and support of all of us involved in the preparations for hosting the event.”The International Olympic Committee previously moved the marathons and race walking events to Japan’s northern city of Sapporo and scheduled most of them to start early in the morning to avoid the heat in Tokyo.Triathlon has remained in the capital even though it includes running.___The governing body of track and field says it supports the new dates for the Tokyo Olympics and is working with organizers in Eugene, Oregon, to move its world championships to 2022. European Tour chief executive Keith Pelley says “we will continue to evaluate all aspects of our 2020 European Tour schedule, and discussions on the rescheduling of postponed events will remain ongoing until we have clarity on the global situation.” ___The governing body of swimming welcomed the new Tokyo Olympic dates without giving any detail of how to reschedule its own world championships in Japan next year.FINA’s biennial worlds were planned for July 16-Aug. 1, 2021, in Fukuoka. That slot is now taken by the Tokyo Olympics.FINA says knowing the Olympic dates “is very helpful to federations and athletes everywhere.” Associated Press ___General manager Brian MacLellan says no Washington Capitals players have tested positive for COVID-19 or shown any symptoms after using the same locker room as NBA players who later tested positive.MacLellan says the team hasn’t had any sickness complaints from players related to the coronavirus pandemic that suspended the NHL season. The Capitals followed the NBA’s Utah Jazz in the visiting locker room at Madison Square Garden in New York in early March. Two Jazz players tested positive.MacLellan said on a conference call Monday that “we’re pretty much daily checking in with players to see if they’re exhibiting any” symptoms.Four NHL players have tested positive for the new coronavirus: two on the Ottawa Senators and two on the Colorado Avalanche. NHL chief medical officer Winne Meeuwisse said last week he was “thankful” the numbers have been low. The Latest: Pac-12 Conference OTAs suspended through May 31 ___The Irish Open has become the latest European Tour golf event to be postponed because of the coronavirus outbreak.The tournament was scheduled for May 28-31. There will now be no play on the tour until June at the earliest. The next possible tournament is the Trophee Hassan II in Morocco from June 4-7.The Irish Open is one of the high-profile events that make up the tour’s Rolex Series and had prize money of $7 million this year. It was due to be hosted by Graeme McDowell at the Mount Juliet Estate in County Kilkenny.Regular tour events in Kenya, India, Malaysia, China, Spain, Portugal and Denmark have already been postponed or canceled. Share This StoryFacebookTwitteremailPrintLinkedinRedditThe Latest on the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on sports around the world:___The Pac-12 Conference has extended its suspension of organized team activities through May 31 because of the new coronavirus. Eales says MLS is more fortunate than other leagues around the world that play the traditional fall-to-spring schedule and may have trouble completing their seasons in such a compressed time frame.MLS was just two weeks into its season when play was halted March 12 because of the pandemic. The league has set a tentative return date of May 10, though the growing death toll in the United States could force that date to be pushed back.Eales says everything is on the table, including the possibility of resuming league play in empty stadiums.“We’re fortunate that we had just started our season,” he said Monday during a teleconference with Atlanta media. “We have the whole calendar year to reschedule the games we missed. The emphasis is on playing all 34 games plus the playoffs.”MLS will likely schedule more midweek games and push back its MLS Cup championship game into mid-December in a bid to play a full season, according to Eales. He added that the playoffs could begin in mid-November — around the time MLS had been planning its title game. Boston played the Utah Jazz on March 6. Five days later, Jazz All-Star Rudy Gobert announced he had tested positive for COVID-19, triggering rolling shutdowns of sports around the world.Smart tested positive on March 19. He had been in isolation since then and was being monitoring by Celtics medical staff. His teammates, coaches and staff members were also tested, but those tests have come back negative.___The British and Irish Lions and SA Rugby have delayed the ticket ballots in Europe and South Africa and the release of the supporters’ tour packages because of the coronavirus outbreak.Both were to be launched next month for the tour in July 2021. Tokyo organizers say the opening ceremony will take place on July 23, 2021 — almost exactly one year after the games were due to start this year.The IOC and Japanese organizers last week postponed the Olympics until 2021 because of the coronavirus pandemic.This year’s games were scheduled to open on July 24 and close on Aug. 9. But the near exact one-year delay will see the rescheduled closing ceremony on Aug. 8.There had been talk of switching the Olympics to spring, a move that would coincide with the blooming of Japan’s famous cherry blossoms. But it would also clash with European soccer and North American sports leagues.___ “Everyone’s priorities are in doing everything they can to fight the COVID-19 pandemic, and we are no exception,” SA Rugby CEO Jurie Roux said in a statement on Monday. “We ask our passionate rugby supporters to please bear with us during this difficult time.”The eight-match tour is going ahead as scheduled despite clashing with the postponed Tokyo Olympics.The tests are on July 24 — the day after the games open — July 31, and Aug. 7.___Atlanta United President Darren Eales says Major League Soccer still intends to play a full 34-game schedule this season, even though the league will be shuttered for at least two months because of the new coronavirus. March 30, 2020 Virtual group activities, including film study, are allowed up to two hours per week in football and four hours per week in other sports. Coaches are allowed to recommend written, self-directed workout plans, and videos on workout plans are allowed to show proper form and technique.___Boston Celtics guard Marcus Smart says he has been cleared by medical officials after testing positive for the new coronavirus earlier this month.In a message posted late Sunday on Twitter, Smart says he was informed of the news Friday by the Massachusetts Department of Health. He thanked everyone for their support.“Stay safe and stay together — apart!” Smart wrote. World Athletics says “everyone needs to be flexible and compromise.”The 2021 track worlds were scheduled to be next year from Aug. 6-15.World Athletics says it will consult with the organizers of the Commonwealth Games and the European Athletics Championships. Those are other major track events scheduled to take place in 2022.___The Tokyo Olympics will open next year in the same time slot scheduled for this year’s games. The governing body of track quickly committed to pushing back its world championships to 2022. But FINA has the added complication of the 2022 Commonwealth Games because many top swimmers compete in both events.___The governing body of triathlon says it wanted the rescheduled Olympics to be held earlier in the year to avoid the summer heat but has accepted the new dates.World Triathlon president Marisol Casado says “even though we would have preferred to move the games to earlier dates, where the impact of the heat was a bit lower, we agreed that these dates are the best solution.”All sports federations involved in the Olympics signed off on the new dates. More AP sports: https://apnews.com/apf-sports and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports,Tampa Bay Lightning advance to face Dallas Stars in Stanley Cup finals, beating New York Islanders 2-1 in OT in Game 6