Russian cities and regions whose Jewish populations bore the brunt of deaths and displacement in the Holocaust have seen lower economic growth and wages ever since, according to a detailed new analysis of seven decades of Soviet and Russian data. These same areas have tended to resist political reform, exhibiting greater popular support for Communist candidates since the collapse of the Soviet Union.The findings, by political scientists and economists at Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, are presented in a new working paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research.“The Holocaust wiped out many of the most educated and productive people in western Russia,” said co-author James A. Robinson, the David Florence Professor of Government at Harvard. “It was a major shock to the social structure of the invaded regions, dramatically reducing the size of the Russian middle class. While there is a broad body of literature on the psychological effects of the Holocaust, there has been almost no study of the long-term economic and political impact on the societies left behind. We set out to better understand how this cataclysmic event has continued to reverberate in Russia.”Most historians believe that a million Soviet Jews perished in the Holocaust, as the German army thrust into Soviet territory in 1941, followed by paramilitary death squads that systematically eradicated Jewish populations.Robinson and co-authors Daron Acemoglu of MIT and Tarek A. Hassan of Chicago Booth found that the killing of Jews in the Holocaust appears to have hurt many Russian cities and regions by permanently reducing the size of the middle class there. The analysis shows that Jews, despite being a small minority, made up a disproportionate share of the Russian middle class. Before World War II, 67 percent of Russian Jews held white-collar jobs, compared with only about 15 percent of non-Jews. In some of the invaded areas, 70 percent of physicians and many workers in high-skill jobs in trade and education were Jews.“The persecution of Jews had long-lasting effects on the societies left behind, not because Jews constituted a large share of the population, but because they constituted a large share of key strata of society, which are essential constituents of economic and political development,” said Hassan, an assistant professor of finance at Chicago Booth.In a five-year effort, the researchers combed over census and other data from across Russia, comparing economic and political outcomes in areas never occupied by the Nazis, those occupied with large Jewish populations, and those occupied with small Jewish populations.In the 11 Russian oblasts (administrative districts) most affected by the Holocaust, the Jewish population declined by an average 39 percent between 1939 and 1959. These areas now have markedly lower per-capita gross domestic product and lower average wages. The average GDP per capita was just $4,555 in 2002, compared with a nationwide average of $5,855.Acemoglu, Hassan, and Robinson also found a lasting tendency toward anti-reform politicians in these regions. In the 11 oblasts that suffered most under Nazi occupation, voters in the 1990s were more favorably disposed toward Communist candidates than were citizens in other regions. They also demonstrated greater support for preserving the Soviet Union in a 1991 plebiscite called by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.While the correlation between economic and political outcomes and the decline in Jewish population is a strong one, Robinson cautions that the relationship may be influenced by other factors.“We find a robust relationship between the decline in Jewish populations and subsequent economic development, but this study is not meant to be the final word on this topic,” he said. “This is a first attempt to analyze this question, and one which will hopefully encourage other researchers to study the long-term political and economic effects of this wrenching event.”The research was funded in part by the William A. Ackman Fund for Holocaust Studies and the Warburg Foundation.
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York A Nassau County police sergeant rescued a 68-year-old man who became submerged in chest-high ice water after attempting to retrieve his dog who ran onto an ice-covered lake in Massapequa Saturday afternoon, police said. Police were called to Caroon Lake at 2 p.m., police said. The man, who was not identified, was attempting to rescue the dog after the pet ran about 20 feet onto the ice, police said. The victim eventually fell through the ice and was submerged up to his chest, police said. The sergeant arrived and used a ladder as a crutch across the ice, police said. He was able to reach the man and pull him to safety. The dog, who police said was shivering, was also safely recovered. The man was transported to a local hospital, where he was treated for hypothermia, police said.
Unai Emery backs Arsenal youth stars to replace Aaron Ramsey Ramsey is joining Juventus this summer (Picture: Getty)Unai Emery hinted Arsenal may not look for a direct replacement in the transfer market for Aaron Ramsey this summer and will instead turn to the club’s youth academy to fill the void of the departed Welshman.Ramsey has played his final game for Arsenal ahead of his switch to Juventus this summer after eleven years at the club.Emery is not expected to be handed a significant transfer budget this summer and the Arsenal boss insisted he is keen for the likes of 19-year-olds Joe Willock and Eddie Nketiah to step up.‘We need to use young players like Ramsey who played here when he was young. Every player can take chances and use these chances to improve with us,’ Emery said after a 3-1 win over Burnley on Sunday.ADVERTISEMENT Coral BarryMonday 13 May 2019 8:00 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link2.3kShares Emery is set to dip into the youth academy to find a replacement for Ramsey (Picture: Getty)‘Willock and Nketiah played the 90 minutes, they used this time to help us with a good match. It’s our responsibility to give them chances but find the best performance as a team.AdvertisementAdvertisement‘Young players need opportunities to be with us in training.’Arsenal ended their Premier League campaign on a high with an away win at Burnley, with Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang scoring twice to claim the Golden Boot, alongside Liverpool duo Mohamed Salah and Sadio Mane. Comment Advertisement Nketiah scored Arsenal’s third in the win over Burnley (Picture: Getty)Willock impressed Arsenal fans in attack, while Nketiah scored the Gunners’ third as Emery’s side finished in fifth place in the league.Arsenal have one more game this season against Chelsea in the Europa League final, a game Ramsey will miss due to injury.Emery has almost three weeks to prepare his players for their bid to claim qualification for next season’s Champions League by winning the Europa League.‘We prepare like when it’s an international break,’ he said. Willock impressed Arsenal fans against Burnley (Picture: Getty)‘We will have two days off and for the first week we will not be thinking about the final.‘We will train three days in London and then next weekend we will have it off and then we will start on Tuesday in London with three days training preparing with all of our focus on the final.‘We will go to Baku three or four days before the final, Saturday I think, and prepare for the match over the last three training sessions.‘It’s the same as when we have an international break.’MORE: Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang sends class message to Arsenal teammates after winning Premier League Golden Boot Advertisement
119 Ridge St, Northgate.A LUXURIOUS 1920s Queenslander was expected to appeal to families looking for a home with its heritage on show. 119 Ridge St, Northgate.The four bedroom, two bathroom, two car space property is being marketed by Janelle McKenna and Lisa Pearse-Sargeant of Ray White Ascot as a family home sought after because of its massive 880sq m block. Nestled in the suburb of Northgate, 119 Ridge Street is close to the airport, boutiques, cafes and restaurants. The single-storey layout incorporates numerous indoor and outdoor entertaining areas, along with private living spaces. The first floor’s starred entry is preceded by an established garden with lawn, trees and shrubs and passes through a covered veranda with ornate balustrade. 119 Ridge St, Northgate.The shared bathroom is naturally lit and comes with a frosted glass shower, bathtub and timber-finished vanity.The spacious kitchen complements its surroundings with timber benchtops and cabinetry, quality stainless steel appliances and a large serving window out to the rear deck. Its accompanying breakfast area flows to the deck through bi-fold doors. This sprawling outdoor entertaining area is covered by an angular roof with exposed timber beams. Stairs lead down to a backyard and lagoon-style pool with covered gazebo and surrounding native palms. More from newsMould, age, not enough to stop 17 bidders fighting for this home1 hour agoBuyers ‘crazy’ not to take govt freebies, says 28-yr-old investor7 hours ago119 Ridge St, Northgate.Inside, elegant period features such as polished hoop pine floors, high ceilings, VJ walls and decorative cornices flow throughout each room. A hallway with artistic archways separates the three bedrooms, all of which boast built-in wardrobes and carpet. The main bedroom also has french doors out to the front veranda. Open-plan dining and lounge rooms provide a seamless transition from formal to informal living, along with airconditioning and traditional casement windows. The nearby study nook and laundry are both discreetly placed to one side. 119 Ridge St, Northgate.The rear deck also incorporates a stylish guesthouse with an ensuite, walk-in wardrobe and loft. A single-car garage resides underneath the main house.With solar power and multiple water tanks, this property has a firm focus on environmental sustainability. Year-round comfort is ensured, thanks to a fully insulated roof, ceiling fans and an abundance of cooling breezes.Ms McKenna said the residence epitomised the Australian dream, bringing function, style, luxury and warmth together. The property goes to auction at 1pm on Saturday March 25.
Ofgem has appointed Diamond Transmission Partners as the preferred bidder to own and operate the offshore transmission link of the Walney Extension offshore wind farm in the UK.The consortium of HICL Infrastructure Company, Diamond Transmission Corporation and Chubu Electric Power will be operating the wind farm’s transmission link for a period of 20 years.HICL said that the consideration for its 40% share of the economic interest in the Walney OFTO is expected to be approximately GBP 23 million.The completion of the acquisition is expected towards the end of this calendar year.Walney Extension represents the fourth successful OFTO bid by the HICL and Diamond Transmission Corporation partnership, HICL said. Previous awards include the Burbo Bank Extension OFTO, which has reached financial close, the Race Bank OFTO and the Galloper OFTO, where Diamond Transmission Partners have been selected as preferred bidder.Walney Extension comprises 40 MHI Vestas 8MW turbines and 47 Siemens Gamesa 7MW turbines located off the coast of Cumbria.The 659MW offshore wind farm was officially inaugurated at the beginning of September 2018.
FRANKLIN COUNTY, Ind. — A person was injured after a rollover accident in Franklin County.According to the Franklin County Sheriff’s Department, the accident occurred around 10:15 pm Wednesday evening on Oxford Pike near Cooley Road.Police say Justin L. Nesbitt was traveling on Oxford Pike when his car ran off the roadway which caused it to flip onto its top and struck a telephone pole.Nesbit was transported to the hospital for treatment of his injuries.
Statewide—During the daily press briefing with Governor Eric Holcomb on Thursday, it was announced that An Indiana University project intends to take nasal swabs and blood samples for coronavirus testing from at least 5,000 Hoosiers ages 12 and older selected at random from around the state. People will be contacted by a postcard, phone, text, or email. The testing will begin Saturday and researchers could give an early report to state officials within about a week.Dr. Menachemi, a professor at the IU Fairbanks School of Public Health, says the study allows them to look below the water and see the entire iceberg and try to get a sense of how large it is and how it is affecting different communities. The State’s current testing has largely focused on those who are seriously ill or health-care workers, leading to a lack of information on the overall coronavirus spread, he said. For most people, the coronavirus causes mild or moderate symptoms. For some, especially older adults and people with existing health problems, it can cause more severe illness. Although state health officials have been updating the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases every day, the actual number of infections is thought to be far higher because many people have not been tested and studies suggest people can be infected without feeling sick.
Authorities took a former Boca Raton High School student into custody after trespassing on the campus Tuesday morning.Police responded to the school to assist district police with a person who had trespassed on campus. The school was on a precautionary code yellow lockdown, but was lifted after a spokesperson for the School District of Palm Beach County said the person had been removed from campus.No one at the school was in danger, and classes continued as normal.
Casado says “I am absolutely confident that we will have magnificent games in Tokyo next summer, with the help and support of all of us involved in the preparations for hosting the event.”The International Olympic Committee previously moved the marathons and race walking events to Japan’s northern city of Sapporo and scheduled most of them to start early in the morning to avoid the heat in Tokyo.Triathlon has remained in the capital even though it includes running.___The governing body of track and field says it supports the new dates for the Tokyo Olympics and is working with organizers in Eugene, Oregon, to move its world championships to 2022. European Tour chief executive Keith Pelley says “we will continue to evaluate all aspects of our 2020 European Tour schedule, and discussions on the rescheduling of postponed events will remain ongoing until we have clarity on the global situation.” ___The governing body of swimming welcomed the new Tokyo Olympic dates without giving any detail of how to reschedule its own world championships in Japan next year.FINA’s biennial worlds were planned for July 16-Aug. 1, 2021, in Fukuoka. That slot is now taken by the Tokyo Olympics.FINA says knowing the Olympic dates “is very helpful to federations and athletes everywhere.” Associated Press ___General manager Brian MacLellan says no Washington Capitals players have tested positive for COVID-19 or shown any symptoms after using the same locker room as NBA players who later tested positive.MacLellan says the team hasn’t had any sickness complaints from players related to the coronavirus pandemic that suspended the NHL season. The Capitals followed the NBA’s Utah Jazz in the visiting locker room at Madison Square Garden in New York in early March. Two Jazz players tested positive.MacLellan said on a conference call Monday that “we’re pretty much daily checking in with players to see if they’re exhibiting any” symptoms.Four NHL players have tested positive for the new coronavirus: two on the Ottawa Senators and two on the Colorado Avalanche. NHL chief medical officer Winne Meeuwisse said last week he was “thankful” the numbers have been low. The Latest: Pac-12 Conference OTAs suspended through May 31 ___The Irish Open has become the latest European Tour golf event to be postponed because of the coronavirus outbreak.The tournament was scheduled for May 28-31. There will now be no play on the tour until June at the earliest. The next possible tournament is the Trophee Hassan II in Morocco from June 4-7.The Irish Open is one of the high-profile events that make up the tour’s Rolex Series and had prize money of $7 million this year. It was due to be hosted by Graeme McDowell at the Mount Juliet Estate in County Kilkenny.Regular tour events in Kenya, India, Malaysia, China, Spain, Portugal and Denmark have already been postponed or canceled. Share This StoryFacebookTwitteremailPrintLinkedinRedditThe Latest on the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on sports around the world:___The Pac-12 Conference has extended its suspension of organized team activities through May 31 because of the new coronavirus. Eales says MLS is more fortunate than other leagues around the world that play the traditional fall-to-spring schedule and may have trouble completing their seasons in such a compressed time frame.MLS was just two weeks into its season when play was halted March 12 because of the pandemic. The league has set a tentative return date of May 10, though the growing death toll in the United States could force that date to be pushed back.Eales says everything is on the table, including the possibility of resuming league play in empty stadiums.“We’re fortunate that we had just started our season,” he said Monday during a teleconference with Atlanta media. “We have the whole calendar year to reschedule the games we missed. The emphasis is on playing all 34 games plus the playoffs.”MLS will likely schedule more midweek games and push back its MLS Cup championship game into mid-December in a bid to play a full season, according to Eales. He added that the playoffs could begin in mid-November — around the time MLS had been planning its title game. Boston played the Utah Jazz on March 6. Five days later, Jazz All-Star Rudy Gobert announced he had tested positive for COVID-19, triggering rolling shutdowns of sports around the world.Smart tested positive on March 19. He had been in isolation since then and was being monitoring by Celtics medical staff. His teammates, coaches and staff members were also tested, but those tests have come back negative.___The British and Irish Lions and SA Rugby have delayed the ticket ballots in Europe and South Africa and the release of the supporters’ tour packages because of the coronavirus outbreak.Both were to be launched next month for the tour in July 2021. Tokyo organizers say the opening ceremony will take place on July 23, 2021 — almost exactly one year after the games were due to start this year.The IOC and Japanese organizers last week postponed the Olympics until 2021 because of the coronavirus pandemic.This year’s games were scheduled to open on July 24 and close on Aug. 9. But the near exact one-year delay will see the rescheduled closing ceremony on Aug. 8.There had been talk of switching the Olympics to spring, a move that would coincide with the blooming of Japan’s famous cherry blossoms. But it would also clash with European soccer and North American sports leagues.___ “Everyone’s priorities are in doing everything they can to fight the COVID-19 pandemic, and we are no exception,” SA Rugby CEO Jurie Roux said in a statement on Monday. “We ask our passionate rugby supporters to please bear with us during this difficult time.”The eight-match tour is going ahead as scheduled despite clashing with the postponed Tokyo Olympics.The tests are on July 24 — the day after the games open — July 31, and Aug. 7.___Atlanta United President Darren Eales says Major League Soccer still intends to play a full 34-game schedule this season, even though the league will be shuttered for at least two months because of the new coronavirus. March 30, 2020 Virtual group activities, including film study, are allowed up to two hours per week in football and four hours per week in other sports. Coaches are allowed to recommend written, self-directed workout plans, and videos on workout plans are allowed to show proper form and technique.___Boston Celtics guard Marcus Smart says he has been cleared by medical officials after testing positive for the new coronavirus earlier this month.In a message posted late Sunday on Twitter, Smart says he was informed of the news Friday by the Massachusetts Department of Health. He thanked everyone for their support.“Stay safe and stay together — apart!” Smart wrote. World Athletics says “everyone needs to be flexible and compromise.”The 2021 track worlds were scheduled to be next year from Aug. 6-15.World Athletics says it will consult with the organizers of the Commonwealth Games and the European Athletics Championships. Those are other major track events scheduled to take place in 2022.___The Tokyo Olympics will open next year in the same time slot scheduled for this year’s games. The governing body of track quickly committed to pushing back its world championships to 2022. But FINA has the added complication of the 2022 Commonwealth Games because many top swimmers compete in both events.___The governing body of triathlon says it wanted the rescheduled Olympics to be held earlier in the year to avoid the summer heat but has accepted the new dates.World Triathlon president Marisol Casado says “even though we would have preferred to move the games to earlier dates, where the impact of the heat was a bit lower, we agreed that these dates are the best solution.”All sports federations involved in the Olympics signed off on the new dates. More AP sports: https://apnews.com/apf-sports and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports,Tampa Bay Lightning advance to face Dallas Stars in Stanley Cup finals, beating New York Islanders 2-1 in OT in Game 6
By Adam BurnettIF the 2005 series was a thrilling anomaly, the first Test of the 2006-07 Australian summer at the Gabba was a comprehensive return to a long-established Ashes norm.And it was the usual suspects who were responsible.After Ricky Ponting’s blitz led Australia to a total of 602-9 declared, the baton was passed to Glenn McGrath to do what he did best throughout his career: take English wickets.McGrath had famously missed Australia’s only two defeats of the preceding year’s Ashes, the results instructive as to his influence. In fact, in his 25 previous Tests against England, he had lost just four times, including three dead rubbers.But by November 2006, McGrath was not far off his 37th birthday – beyond the traditional fast-bowling expiry date – and his body had been pushed through the rigours of 119 Tests and more than 200 ODIs.There were rumblings he was finished: that the low-on-pace, high-on-accuracy recipe that had served him so well was no longer enough. He had missed Australia’s Test tours of South Africa and Bangladesh and an 11-month gap between Tests was considered poor preparation for the Ashes.Perhaps the critics should have listened to McGrath himself, who had repeatedly insisted his body was feeling as good as ever.By stumps on day two, with the wickets of openers Andrew Strauss and Alastair Cook in his pocket, he remained upbeat – or defiant.“To get a couple of wickets early on does wonders for the confidence,” he said that evening.“I’m almost exactly where I can be and am really looking forward to day three. I reckon I can really nail it.”After his heroics in 2005 and his exploits in the intervening period, Kevin Pietersen had emerged as England’s most dangerous batsman. The aggressive right-hander scratched his way to 16 on the third morning before he shouldered arms to a ball that nipped back off the seam and trapped him lbw.At 78-4, the visiting side was staring at a monster first-innings deficit, and McGrath seized the advantage, taking another three wickets to finish with 50-6 as England were skittled for 157.On the same surface that Australia’s batsmen would manage more than 800 runs across two innings for the loss of just 10 wickets, and England would go on to post a respectable 370 in their second innings, McGrath’s contribution was pivotal.As he walked off the field to a strong applause from the Brisbane crowd, he briefly began hobbling and clutching his lower back, mocking media suggestions as emphatically as he had just done with the ball.“The boys were into me today for the number of times ‘old’ appeared in the headlines,” McGrath said later. “I was having a bit of fun; I wasn’t having a go at anyone.“To get that five-for, I couldn’t have hoped for a better Test comeback.” (Cricket.comau)