Pangea in Permian to Jurassic time

first_imgThe apparent polar wander paths (= APWPs) for the northern and southern continents have been redetermined using revised time-scales and data. When plotted on the conventional Pangea, Pangea A, the paths are distinct but essentially linear and parallel from Late Carboniferous to Late Permian time. Both paths then undergo a sharp change in direction and converge so as to overlap in Early to Middle Jurassic time. If the Permo-Triassic magnetic field was an axial dipole, then paleomagnetic data show that Pangea was mobile during most, and possibly all, of the mid-Triassic to mid-Jurassic interval. Because of the uncertainties in pole ages and positions, and errors in measurements, the new APWPs are consistent with a range of Pangeas. In particular, the data are compatible with two paleomagnetic Pangeas: A2 and a new class of Pangea here named the D Pangeas. These resemble Morel and Irving’s (1981) Pangea B and the C Pangeas of Smith et al. (1981): unlike the A2 Pangeas, the B, C and D Pangeas all require large (> 2000 km) relative motion between the northern and southern continents. Geological data require the transition from an earlier Pangea to Pangea A to take place along a transform zone, here named the Pangea Transform Zone, or PTZ. The PTZ is considered to be technically analogous to the Great Glen Fault of Scotland. Four types of possible PTZ are examined: passing through either the western or eastern end of the Brunswick Magnetic Anomaly of eastern North America, or north and south of Iberia. The geological data suggest that those Pangeas that require large displacements on PTZs that pass east of the Brunswick Magnetic Anomaly are improbable. B and C Pangeas are snapshots giving precise paleomagnetic reconstructions. D Pangeas fit long stretches of the APWPs as well as possible. A2 Pangeas fit the APWPs moderately well but also require the geological displacement to be smaller. The differences in displacement between the D and A2 Pangeas reflect geometrical relationships between Euler poles, PTZ curvature and the APWPs. The general geological evidence suggests that D Pangeas are less probable than A2 Pangeas but that they cannot be rejected. Transition from A2 to A is most likely to have occurred via a sequence of rotations about different poles rather than a single rotation. In detail, the conventional Pangea requires modification. Africa must be broken into at least two fragments along the Benue Trough and its northern continuation. Northwest Africa then fits more tightly into northern South America, which modifies the APWPs and reduces the gap between them. By including the effects of continental extension and using detailed geological data the gap can be reduced to one in which the A63 circles touch or overlap. Non-dipole fields or an expanding Earth need not be invoked to explain the mismatch of the APWPs on the conventional Pangea. The finite rotation required for the older Pangea to Pangea A is very close to Van der Voo and French’s (1974) single rotation for A2 to A but is actually the sum of three smaller rotations that reflect the modification to Pangea A, continental extension and the postulated PTZ displacement. Of the possible PTZs, a PTZ parallel to the West African continental magnetic anomaly with a displacement of about 170 km gives a better fit of this anomaly to the East Coast magnetic anomaly of North America. Further refinements to Pangea A2 will depend on a better knowledge of stretching factors on the passive continental margins of the modified Pangea A and incorporation of rotations due to major faults such as the South Atlas Fault in Morocco.last_img read more

A new surface accumulation map for western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, from interpolation of point measurements

first_imgAs a result of intensive field activities carried out by several nations over the past 15 years, a set of accumulation measurements for western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, was collected, based on firn-core drilling and snow-pit sampling. This new information was supplemented by earlier data taken from the literature, resulting in I I I accumulation values. Using Geographical information Systems software, a first region-wide mean annual snow-accumulation field was derived. in order to define suitable interpolation criteria, the accumulation records were analyzed with respect to their spatial autocorrelation and statistical properties. The resulting accumulation pattern resembles well-known characteristics such as a relatively wet coastal area with a sharp transition to the dry interior, but also reveals complex topographic effects. Furthermore, this work identifies new high-return shallow-drilling sites by uncovering areas of insufficient sampling density.last_img read more

UK: Rolls-Royce Introduces New Design of Maritime Patrol Craft

first_img View post tag: Patrol UK: Rolls-Royce Introduces New Design of Maritime Patrol Craft View post tag: Defence View post tag: craft View post tag: News by topic View post tag: design Industry news View post tag: Rolls-Royce September 12, 2013 Share this articlecenter_img View post tag: Naval Back to overview,Home naval-today UK: Rolls-Royce Introduces New Design of Maritime Patrol Craft View post tag: Defense View post tag: New View post tag: Introduces View post tag: Maritime Rolls-Royce has unveiled a new design of maritime patrol craft at the Defence & Security Event International (DSEI) in London.The first of a ‘protection vessel family’ of designs, is a new 55-metre craft featuring a range of equipment from Rolls-Royce (stabilisers, thrusters, steering gear, fixed pitch propellers) and MTU (diesels, diesel generators, Callosum IPMS), offering a cost-effective design that can be tailored to mission requirements.Weighing around 500 tonnes, the new vessel is suited to patrol, search and rescue and interception duties. A 90-metre version of the craft will be on offer by the end of the year, with a 75-metre design following in 2014.Garry Mills, Rolls-Royce, Chief of Naval Ship Design, said: “Coastal protection and offshore patrol vessels is a growing sector and this new design offers multi-purpose capability, incorporating core design elements that are replicated across the family of vessels.“Our customers often face short timescales in the procurement of this type of craft, and having a scalable, cost effective offering is essential.“There is a growing trend of commercial marine technology crossing into naval markets as governments seek cost reduction through proven capability. Naval vessels generally comprise many disparate and complex technologies, and that’s what Rolls-Royce, with its broad product base, is good at integrating bespoke whole-ship systems to minimise programme risk.”Building on its success in the commercial marine market, Rolls-Royce established its Bristol-based naval ship design team last year which is focused on four key naval vessel types – naval auxiliaries, offshore/coastal patrol vessels, fast attack craft and naval ice-breakers.[mappress]Press Release, September 12, 2013; Image: Rolls-Royce View post tag: Navylast_img read more

Will Boeing Make Warships’ Laser Weapons More Accurate?

first_img View post tag: US Navy Share this article Authorities View post tag: Warships View post tag: Boeing View post tag: Make View post tag: Navy View post tag: americas Boeing has been awarded a $29.5 million contract to design and develop a beam control system that could provide exceptional accuracy for laser weapons on U.S. Navy warships.The company will begin to design a prototype High Power Beam Control Subsystem (HP BCSS) that’s compatible with High Energy Lasers (HEL) based on solid-state laser (SSL) technology.Boeing’s solution will be compatible with systems other companies are designing for the Office of Naval Research’s (ONR) Solid State Laser Technology Maturation (SSL-TM) program.The resulting beam control system will focus and hold a laser on a moving aimpoint long enough to disable the target. Doing that with a ship-based laser is particularly challenging, given the maritime environment and constant movement of an at-sea vessel.Peggy Morse, vice president, Boeing Directed Energy & Strategic Systems (DESS), said:Boeing innovations in beam control and directed energy technologies are keys to understanding laser weapon system configurations that could yield a capability for the Navy in their maritime environment.[mappress mapid=”15159″]Image: US Navy View post tag: News by topic Will Boeing Make Warships’ Laser Weapons More Accurate? View post tag: more View post tag: Accurate View post tag: will View post tag: laser Back to overview,Home naval-today Will Boeing Make Warships’ Laser Weapons More Accurate? View post tag: Weapons February 18, 2015 View post tag: Navallast_img read more

Tix Now Available to See Patti LuPone & More in Shows for Days

first_img Related Shows Tickets are now on sale to see Patti LuPone, Michael Urie and more in Douglas Carter Beane’s Shows for Days off-Broadway. The Lincoln Center Theater production will begin previews at the Mitzi E. Newhouse Theater on June 6. Opening night is set for June 29.Shows For Days follows 14-year-old Car (Urie), who becomes involved in community theater in Reading, Pennsylvania at the Prometheus Theatre. The theater is led by Irene (LuPone) a woman who dedicates her life to directing, designing and starring in the group’s shows.The cast will also include Dale Soules, Jordan Dean, Lance Coadie Williams and Zoë Winters. View Comments Show Closed This production ended its run on Aug. 23, 2015 Shows For Dayslast_img read more

US Says Venezuela Not Cooperating With Drug War

first_imgBy Dialogo October 21, 2011 Venezuela is not cooperating with the United States in its fight against illegal drug trafficking, U.S. officials told a congressional panel in Washington D.C. In Bolivia, another nation that has cut off most U.S. cooperation, information from neighboring countries indicates the chiefs of some Mexican and Colombian drug cartels are moving to Bolivia to evade pressure from police, the Drug Enforcement Administration’s intelligence chief Rodney Benson told a committee assessing U.S. aid funds for the Andean region. Meanwhile, Venezuela continues to be the main launch point for regional cocaine transport en route to Central America and then Mexico and the United States, though only one percent of the cocaine Bolivia produces ends up in the U.S. market, the official said. “Clearly, Venezuela is becoming more significant for drug trafficking organizations,” Benson said. “Right now we have one agent in the country. We need to continue to build with authorities there… but clearly we’ve taken several steps back,” Benson said. And “I don’t know the reasons why,” he stressed.last_img read more

U.S. Marine Corps Commander Visits Brazilian Navy

first_imgBy Andréa Barretto/Diálogo October 22, 2018 An invitation from the Brazilian Navy’s (MB, in Portuguese) Marine Corps (CFN, in Portuguese) Command prompted General Robert Blake Neller, commander of the U.S. Marine Corps, to visit Brazil, August 22nd-24th. The officer and a delegation of seven marines visited training centers, participated in lectures, and attended a work meeting. Gen. Neller also received a Navy Commendation Medal as a grand officer. The decoration, which Admiral Eduardo Bacellar Leal Ferreira, MB commander, presented, is conferred upon national and foreign personalities, government ministers, naval force commanders, and other military leaders. “The Brazilian and U.S. Marine Corps see the world through similar lenses, face the same challenges, and need this mutual cooperation to build a better world,” said Gen. Neller upon arriving at CFN headquarters, in Rio de Janeiro. On August 23rd, the officer and his delegation participated in a lecture at the Almirante Sylvio de Camargo Training Center, where General Alexandre José Barreto de Mattos, CFN commander, along with other Brazilian marines, seized the opportunity to share CFN’s history and current organizational structure. Brazilian officials addressed CFN’s doctrine, plans for the future, main tasks, operations, and exercises conducted throughout the year. “We reinforced the importance of an enduring partnership with the United States and the strong bonds that unite both corps,” said Colonel Luiz Guilherme Dias Guadagnino, chief of staff of the CFN commander. During his speech, Gen. Neller emphasized today’s challenges in the military arena. No single country, he stressed, has all the capabilities required to fight current threats. “He pointed out the importance of coalitions and partnerships, and summoned everyone present to work together,” Col. Guadagnino said. Speaking from a training center, Gen. Neller took the opportunity to address participating marines, reminding them of the importance of physical and mental preparedness to overcome adversities. He stressed the importance of adapting to fight under conditions that differ from training. The U.S. Marine Corps commander reminded leading officers to be ready to make decisions, even when they lack all the necessary information. Old and new partnerships On August 24th, Gen. Neller and his team visited the Marine Corps Special Operations Battalion, in Rio de Janeiro. U.S. and Brazilian marines held a bilateral work meeting on interoperability. “Both delegations demonstrated interest in improving interoperability through a common planning process, knowledge exchange agreements, and increased communication capabilities,” said Col. Guadagnino. As a result, CFN and the U.S. Marine Corps agreed to strive to increase existing professional exchanges. Every year, CFN sends marines to the United States to participate in short-term U.S. Marine Corps exchanges and operational exercises, such as Steel Knight. The Marine 1st Division-led annual exercise tests marines in different environments, maximizing combat skills development. CFN also receives U.S. marines yearly to take part in exercises or activities such as subject matter expert exchanges (SMEEs). SMEEs promote expert encounters for knowledge exchange at the highest level. U.S. Marines took part in the 2018 edition of Operation Formosa, among other Brazilian exercises, carried out September 21st–October 3rd. CFN also works with U.S. Marine Corps Forces, South to carry out UNITAS Amphibious, a multinational exercise scheduled for August 2019 in Brazil. “All exercises and exchanges are previously agreed upon during an annual bilateral conference, the Operational Naval Infantry Committee [ONIC],” Col. Guadagnino said. In 2018, the ONIC conference, ongoing since 2015, took place in Brazil, February 26th–March 1st. Both countries also have officers serving in each other’s military organizations, focusing on doctrine improvement and development or operational roles.last_img read more

On Compliance: Military Lending Act implementation

first_imgIf your credit union is like most financial institutions, you have been spending a lot of time and money over the past year preparing for the Military Lending Act revisions that took effect earlier this month. These amendments significantly expand the scope of the regulations governing credit unions’ extension of certain consumer credit transactions to active duty members of the U.S. Armed Forces and their dependents. Most notably, the revised rules widen the definition of “consumer credit,” offer two new safe harbor tests to determine whether a borrower is a “covered borrower,” and add new oral and written disclosure requirements.With the majority of these changes going into effect Oct. 3, have you done everything you need to do to ensure compliance? Here are some suggested steps to take to make sure you are ready for these new regulations.1.    Establish procedures to determine “covered borrower” status.In addition to broadening the definition of a “covered borrower,” the MLA amendments replace previous language with two new methods to conclusively determine whether a borrower is covered under the the act: (a) searching the Department of Defense’s database directly or indirectly and (b) verifying a borrower’s status using a consumer report obtained from a nationwide consumer reporting agency or reseller of consumer reports.To take advantage of either safe harbor, a credit union must make a covered borrower determination no more than 30 days prior to the initiation of the covered credit transaction or application for the covered credit account. A 60-day look-back period applies to firm offers of credit. 4SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr continue reading »last_img read more

Consumers worry most about FI-targeted cyberattacks

first_img continue reading » 1SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr Almost six of 10 respondents believe it is “likely” the U.S. will suffer a massive critical infrastructure disruption within two years and 26% worry about a financial sector cyberattack.Those are among the results of an ESET survey of 1,500 Americans, conducted online via Google Surveys from October 8 to October 11, 2018, to find out what they think about CI attacks and cyber threats.The financial/banking industry is their top concern when it comes to cyberattacks. The study found that Americans are most worried about a cyberattack disrupting the financial/banking system, more than attacks against hospital/emergency services, voting systems, or power grid/energy supply companies.“Despite the news headlines and concerted efforts to provide education and awareness across the country, many people are still not aware of the risks that cyberattacks pose,” the survey reported.last_img read more

Government to suspend entry for foreign workers during COVID-19 outbreak

first_imgThe government has suspended entry for foreign workers during the COVID-19 outbreak following reports that hundreds of Chinese workers have tried to enter Southeast Sulawesi. “The government aims to reduce the spread of COVID-19 by limiting foreigners from entering the country. This policy will be in effect until the situation improves,” presidential spokeswoman for legal matters Dini Purwono said on Monday. Two companies in Southeast Sulawesi, PT Virtue Dragon Nickel Industry (VDNI) and PT Obsidian Stainless Steel (OSS), had planned to bring in 500 foreign workers from China to install smelter equipment. The companies claimed they had to outsource the workers due to a lack of capable local workers and said that once the equipment was ready, the company would hire 3,000 local workers. The foreign workers were scheduled to in Indonesia for six months and return to their home country once the installation was complete. The workers have yet to arrive in Indonesia.  Read also: High influx of Indonesian migrant workers from Malaysia, despite call to stay amid outbreakDini said the foreign workers would be allowed to enter the country once the outbreak was under control. She added that the workers will be subjected to a series of tests and health protocols to ensure they were free from COVID-19 when they entered Indonesia in the future. “As for now, the Manpower Ministry is coordinating with the Southeast Sulawesi governor as well as the South Sulawesi Regional Legislative Council to find a solution that prevents the spread of COVID-19 while also ensuring that the project, which will employ 3,000 workers, can continue because this involves many people’s livelihoods,” she said. (dpk)Topics :last_img read more